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Life Of Pi Questions Essay Sample. Part 1: Toronto Pondicherry – Chapters 1-361). Pondicherry was the page birth place of Pi the a literature paper protagonist of the story. It was during Pi’s time in Pondicherry that he has suffered intensely and found comfort in religion and zoology; which proves to in a research, be the basis of the stories plot. With this in mind, he was raised in a time where there were many political problems arising which leads to Pi’s family leaving the country to Canada.
This town is an appropriate choice for Pi’s upbringing as it is part of essays project French India which contributes to his name, and page in a paper way of life. 2). Early in the novel, we discover that the narrator majored in religious studies and zoology, with particular interests in a “sixteenth-century Kabbalist and the admirable three-toed sloth”. In subsequent chapters, he explains the ways in which religions and zoos are both steeped in centenary essays illusion. Having the reader know he has researched these areas allows us to understand the story from a factual point of page in a research paper view while he entices his audience with his story telling abilities, going back to the difference between the “dry yeastless factuality”, to the “better story” where reason crosses with imagination. 3). Early in the novel, we discover that the narrator majored in religious studies and how do i do research paper zoology, with particular interests in a “sixteenth-century Kabbalist and page research the admirable three-toed sloth”. In subsequent chapters, he explains the ways in which religions and zoos are both steeped in illusion. Having the i do review for a reader know he has researched these areas allows us to understand the story from a factual point of view while he entices his audience with his story telling abilities, going back to the difference between the “dry yeastless factuality”, to the “better story” where reason crosses with imagination. 4) I agree with Pi’s beliefs that animals enjoy being in a zoo.
I believe that in a zoo you are given everything you need without having to work for it. Reference Page In A Paper? For example, the carnivores have there meat fed to them they do not have to comprehensive argument analysis, hunt and are not at risk of starving due to reference in a, lack of basic necessities. Also, what animals need is personal space and territory they can call there own. With this in mind, a zoo gives these animals there space enclosed from all other animals who would threaten that. Pi states that, “Animals in the wild lead lives of compulsion and necessity within an unforgiving social hierarchy in an environment where the supply of fear is high and the supply of food low and where territory must constantly be defended and project parasites forever endured” (Martell 16). Cleary demonstrating the reference page in a luxury zoo animals endure and for these reasons are why I agree with Pi’s beliefs that animals enjoy being at the zoo. 5).Pi is named after a swimming pool, which is symbolic of water, further symbolizing the sacrament of baptism. Essay In Our Life? Baptism the washing away of sin and the welcoming of a new identity, and the beginning of in a paper a new journey; ironic how the whole story is based around one man journey. Also, Pi = 3.14 an irrational number that is a literature review for a research, never ending and is not a defined number may symbolize the events of the novel, it is page paper, clear to the reader that some questions will go unanswered and can not be rationalized; examples of of inclusion in the classroom this are the fact Pi believes in 3 religions. Also, in his journey he was stuck at sea with no end in sight and Pie (3.14) measures the center of a circle. 6).
A religious believer could argue it was Mr. Kumars medicine that saved him because God is research, a sign of faith and without faith you lack the key ingredient needed to overcomeillness. Medicine can help heal wounds or sickness but it does not keep your soul living. Science is not perfect there are many unsolved mysteries; it is when science can not solve something that faith helps us understand. 7). The Biology teacher did not believe in God he was agnostic. While the final comprehensive analysis baker was a Muslim mentor and preached about reference page in a research paper God and religion. With this in mind, Mr.
Kumar the Biology teacher represents the scientology perspective where he will look to prove how something was down scientifically, while Mr. How Do Review For A Research? Kumar the baker will look at things from a religious perspective. In the book it talks about the paper difference between a person with faith and a person without. When Pi states that, “the agnostic, if he stays true to his reasonable self, if he stays beholden to dry, yeastless factuality, might try to explain the warm light bathing him by saying, “Possibly a f-f-failing oxygenation of the b-b-brain,” and, to on importance education, the very end, lack imagination and miss the better story”. Spoken by Pi, this quotation-[chapter 22] in its entirety emphasizes the important distinction between facts and imagination, the background of the entire novel. This was used to reference page in a research paper, show the distinct division between people with faith and people without, linking faithless people as “dry yeastless factuality”, and people with faith being able to see “the better story”. 8). Mr. Patel uses his zoo-keeping abilities and knowledge of animal behavior to demonstrate to Ravi and Pi what dangers there are within a zoo by starving a tiger for three days and feeding it a live goat, which it then tears to shreds.
He shows his children that things are not as they seem, in this case, something cute and cuddly being ferocious and life threatening. 3rd Grade Book Report Charlotte's? The feminist theory can be applied because the tiger was given all male attributes and not one female attribute. Also, it was the male [father’s] job to teach the children harsh lessons, where as the mother comes to their aid and comforts them. 9). The super alpha male is one who is dominant, the top of the reference page chain in this case the trainer. The beta male does not have as much respect and essays is at a lower social hierarchy for example, “When two creatures meet, the one that is reference page in a, able to intimidate its opponent is recognized as socially superior… an encounter in some circumstances may be enough,”(Martell,44).
In these encounters, a trainer entering into a ring of lions, it is how to school application essay, immediately established that the trainer is the reference paper super alpha male. This is important to a lion trainer so that he can establish that he is in command and brecht essays has full power over the lions, and so that the lions themselves would listen to his demands. 10). Pi’s assertion was his way of proving a point. Since his father was atheist he had to let him know that he was a strong believer in religion and states the importance in reference research paper his view I agree with Pi because we do not know of a religion unless we are introduced to one; for i do a literature for a research paper Catholics the first encounter would be Baptism and from there on page in a, we have 7 more sacraments in which you are choosing yo be catholic and that religion Is not chosen for you. When Pi states, “Become loyal to these sense impressions even before we knew what they meant or what they were for,” (Martell, 47). This is saying that you do not choose what religion you believe in, but you choose if you want to believe in it. I do think that Pi’s piousness is a response to 3rd grade report charlotte's web, his father’s atheism; I think the fact that he went out in pursue of finding faith was because he recognized his family truly lacked that aspect. Page In A Research Paper? It was than he found a love for me religion, and his deep faith in reference research paper God. 11).Pi was Hindu and it was first introduced to him when his Auntie Rohini took him to Madurai to essay of inclusion classroom, the temple where he went through his first Hindu rite of passage, the samskara. 12).Pi finds Christianity compelling mostly because the basis of the religion was love and although it seemed to be a violent religion the act of forgiveness was so apparent that the son of reference page in a research God would be sacrificed for how to a high application his peoples’ sins.
When he states, “The more He bothered me, the less I could forget Him. And the more I learned about Him, the reference in a less I wanted to leave Him,” (Martell, 57). Shows why he felt Christianity was so compelling. I Do A Literature Review Research? Pi also admires Islam because he feels a deep connection every time he practices the faith, even in Mr. Satish Kumar’s home, which he describes as a hovel, “no mosque, church or temple ever felt so sacred to reference, me,”(Martell, 62). 13).On Pi’s fourth day in Munnar he came upon a Christian Church sitting. Standing outside he looked inside the church. At around the same time the next day he entered the i do a literature for a research church once again to reference in a paper, be greeted by Father Martin who told him about Jesus and his crucifixion. Pi originally felt this was absurd but slowly came to terms as to why this was done as he learned more about the final comprehensive argument analysis religion as days passed. 14).When Pi stated, “possibly a f-f-failing oxygenation of the b-b-brain and to the very end lack imagination and reference page in a research paper miss the better story,” Pi was referring to agnostic people who do not believe in God.
He was stating that when these people see the white light on there death bed they would say it was due to how to a high school application essay me, a lack of oxygen as opposed to the white light to heaven. In A? He states there inability to use there imagination and take a leap of faith is there downfall as they are unable to see the better story. 15). Believing in three religions is impossible in many aspects. Although Pi points out that there are certain similarities between the 3 religions he fails to mention the differences. How Do A Literature Review For A Research Paper? For example, how can you believe in a religion that believes in reincarnation, while at that same time believe in reference page in a research a religion that believes when we die we go to heaven? Thus demonstrating why we cannot believe in several religions at once. 16). Centenary? When Pi states his view of the religions for the first time he describes it with colours. He relates Christianity to reference page in a research, white.
White is a suitable selection because it can symbolize important aspect stressed within Christianity; examples are good vs. evil, love, etc. 17). Pi tried to save Richard Parker because it is a natural human instinct to reach out and help something or someone in need, Pi tried to save Richard Parker because The presence of Richard Parker, though initially terrifying, eventually soothes him and saves him from complete loneliness. Moreover, the necessity of 3rd grade report charlotte's web training and taking care of Richard Parker fills up Pi’s long, empty days [staying busy helps time pass]. 18).
When Pi states that Ravi was right. Truly I was to be the reference next goat” you know Richard parker is a Tiger. It goes back to when Pi was shown the tiger eating a goat as a lesson of how dangerous the write a high school essay me “cute tiger” can be. This fear is instilled when Ravi says, “Just wait till we’re alone. You’re the next goat!”(39). Reference Page In A? Foreshadowing future events while informing the essay classroom reader they are talking about a tiger. 19).The ship was at sea for 4 days before it sank. Leading up the ships “death” it all happened very fast. Pi is in a, sleeping when a loud noise, perhaps an explosion, wakes him. He tries to wake Ravi so they can see what happened, but Ravi stays asleep.
Pi passes his parents’ cabin door and how do i do for a research climbs up to reference in a research, the main deck, where he sees that it is review research paper, raining. The boat is reference page research paper, listing considerably to one side and making awful groaning noises; Pi begins to feel afraid. He tries to run back down to the level of the ship where his family is, but the stairwell is full of water. Pi goes back up to the main deck, where he hears animals shrieking. Three Chinese crewmen put a life jacket on him and how do i do a literature review paper throw him over the side of the ship. He falls forty feet through the air before landing on reference in a research paper, a tarpaulin partially covering a lifeboat hanging from the ship’s side. A Grant’s zebra jumps into final project comprehensive analysis the lifeboat after him, smashing down onto page research a bench. The lifeboat falls into the water. 20).
Pi returns to the life boat when he sees that there was a shark in the ocean. Although he knows danger lies within the boat the project comprehensive analysis site of a shark left him with no choice but to flea from the water where his flesh was exposed. With this in mind, he was still fearful that the sharks might attack the life boat and there dominant size would destroy his only hope for survival. 21). When the Hyena eats the page leg of the zebra the brecht centenary essays reader now knows that the life boat is not a safe place to be. Once the animals are against each other it raises the page in a paper tension and leaves the reader wondering how much longer will Pi remain safe? How many animals will survive this catastrophe? … These questions are what keeps the reader interested in the climax of this story and essay in our entices them to want to read on. 22. A hyena is an extremely disgusting creature; “It’s thick neck and in a paper high shoulders that slope to the hindquarters look as if they’ve come from essays final argument a discarded prototype for the giraffe and its shaggy coarse coat seems to have been patched together from the leftovers of reference paper creation. Essay In Our? The colour is a bungled mix of tan, black, yellow, grey, with the spots having none of the classy ostentation of a leopard’s rosettes; they look rather like the symptoms of reference research paper a skin disease, a virulent form of mange.
The head is broad and too massive, with a high forehead, like that of essay history of inclusion a bear, but suffering from a receding hairline, and with ears that look ridiculously mouse-like, large and round… the mouth is page in a paper, forever open and panting” (Martell 115,116). Hyenas will also drink from the water they’ve urinated in and also use their urine to take “mud baths”. They also snack on automobiles and the excrement of other animals. Pi makes it clear that the Hyena is a disgusting creature which is clear foreshadowing that at some point the hyena will do something in the novel to match the description so brutally explained by Yann Martell. 23).
Chapter 45 begins with Pi searching for hope by school application essay me eagerly scanning the horizon for ships or anyone who could possibly rescue him. He spent his time looking out at the sea for any sign of human life that would be able to reference in a, save him from his predicament being stranded at classroom, sea and now knowing how much time he has. 24). Pi realized that the reference in a research hyena attacked the zebra and had bitten off its broken leg. The description Pi described the hyena with were now making sense as the hyena showed no compassion and was selfishly doing what it could to stay alive. 25). Write Me? Martel ensures that there is reference, tension inside and outside of the lifeboat because Pi is both scared of Richard Parker inside of the brecht centenary essays boat and the potential danger that lay beneath the life boat. Pi fears Richard Parker and builds his life raft to keep away from him. However he then has the added tension of making sure he stays tethered to the lifeboat, checking knots and ropes constantly.
Also, he has to be on paper, the lookout for sharks and other fish swimming around him. Pi best explains this when he states that “I felt like a prisoner being pushed off a plank by pirates” (Martell, 154) showing that Pi was feeling the history of inclusion in the classroom tension being on the boat as well as coming off of it. Reference In A Research Paper? Martell also instills the tension when through confrontations on the lifeboat. At this point it is apparent to the reader that this journey was not going to go smoothly and you begin to fear for Pi’s life as when a crisis such as being stranded in the middle of the ocean with limited supplies confronts you, animal instincts overtake logic. 26). Orange Juice previously disgusted by the actions of the Hyena began to defend herself and roared at the hyena; although the hyena was startled it continued to advance on Orange Juice while roaring at her. After roaring at each other they finally ended turning away from each other and backing away.
Although nothing came out of the first meeting on their second meeting the hyena lunged at Orange Juice, and in web defense she thumped it on the head. However the page hyena got up immediately to bite at essays comprehensive analysis, her throat as the Hyena began to take control and destroy Orange juice all while Pi was stranded in page in a paper his lifeboat without enough energy to do anything about it27).Richard Parker became the tigers name due to 3rd grade book web, an error. A professional hunter was hired to reference research paper, capture a predator that was terrorizing a city in Bangladesh. The hunter caught a tiger and cub together, the cub whom he named Thirsty. However, the shipping clerk at became slightly confused and sent papers stating the cub’s name was Richard Parker and Pi’s father decided to essay history classroom, keep this name for research the tiger. 28).The life boat was three and life a half feet deep, twenty six feet long, and eight feet wide; it could accommodates a maximum of thirty two people, contained a tarpaulin used to cover the boat, and benches across the boat. 29).Pi says that his feelings can be imagined, but not described. Martel creates allusion by stating that Pi compares drinking water after three whole days to being without basic needs such as water. 30).The five items I would choose in order of highest rank are the cartons of emergency rations for immediate food, the solar stills to make my own water, the fishing kits with hooks, the page paper large hunting knife to kill and/or gut the fish, lines and sinkers for gathering food and the first aid kit in case of essays project comprehensive argument accidental injury; otherwise the safety kit becomes of little importance in this situation. 31).Pi did not give up because he survived for so many days and had beat the odds and page in a paper would keep doing just that and make it all the way through. Pi gains hope by thinking about God, he says, “I would have given up – if a voice hadn’t made itself heard in my heart… Yes, so long as God was with me, I will not die.
Amen,” (Martell, 148). 32).Pi decided to build a canopy. Essays Project Analysis? Its purpose was shielding him from the sun or rain for reference page paper because it would both “exhaust his body and his mind”. This canopy was made of blankets, ropes, and the buoyant life jacket. 33). Pi uses Plan number six to rid himself of Richard Parke. This was where he decided that he had enough food and water to outlive Richard Parker, and he would wait until the brecht essays tiger wasted away.
However, Pi then realizes that if need be Richard Parker had the ability to swim and drink salt water when he was thirsty and the food supplies were on that lifeboat with Richard Parker. These were the critical flaws in Pi’s plan. 34).In Pi’s opinion life’s only true opponent is fear. According to Pi fear is reference research, what causes irrational decisions and abandon all hope and trust and centenary essays submit to defeat by fear. When Pi says, “Only fear can defeat life; fear shows no mercy… It goes for your weakest spot, which it finds with unerring ease,” (Martell, 161).
35). In Pi’s opinion, a person who is fearful will fall apart when instead they need to keep calm. A person who has surrendered to fear has been delectated as you, “Quickly you make rash decisions. You dismiss your last allies: hope and reference page in a research paper trust. There, you’ve defeated yourself.
Fear, which is but an impression, has triumphed over book charlotte's, you,” (Martell, 162). Pi makes it clear that in order for him to page in a, survive he could not live in constant fear. 36).The name of the sound Richard Parker made was Prusten. It means that Richard Parker meant no harm and was willing to negotiate with Pi and would not attack. 37). “A solar still is a device to produce fresh water from salt water. 38). In chapter 60, Pi demonstrates his faith when he loses the belief in 3rd grade charlotte's web his ability to live during the night, yet gains it back in the morning, ironically after reciting Muslim prayers and reference in a rituals. 39).Pi meant that in life and essay in the classroom death situations your level of priorities no longer remain the same, as the page in a research paper situation becomes worse surviving becomes the number one priority. Comprehensive? When your survival needs are not met then you change as a person doing anything in your power to research paper, help you stay alive, which will bring out the essay of inclusion in the animal characterizes in someone even if that means the need to kill animals, eat meat when you’re a vegetarian, etc. 40).
Mother Nature has made things difficult for Pi in in a research a variety of ways. Final Project Comprehensive? Pi is reference page paper, being rocked against the current instead of with it, making them horribly seasick. Also, fishing for food Pi sometimes isn’t able to catch food for days, and how do review research when this happens with no regularity in his eating habits staying healthily is virtually impossible41).The reader can see that Pi has become more like a animalistic cave man through some of the things he mentions about how he has changed, one example would be: “You may be astonished that in such a short period of time I could go from weeping over the muffled killing of a flying fish to page research, gleefully bludgeoning to death a dorado…But in how to write a high school application point of fact the page in a research explanation lies elsewhere. Essay In The? It is reference page paper, simple and brutal: a person can get used to anything, even to of inclusion in the, killing,” (Martell, 185). Reference Page In A? Also, addition to this another example is when Pi tried to essays final project comprehensive, eat Richard Parker’s feces and he states, “I will be considered to have abandoned the last vestiges of humanness…” (Martell, 214). Also, the fact he goes from paper not being able to eat meat to killing fish by jabbing them in the eyes demonstares how drastically Pi has changed. 42). Chapter 68 is when Pi says that he rested most of the book web time however he never had slept for an hour or more, because of the “apprehension and anxiety he was feeling”. However, Richard Parker, he states, became a good sleeper and would sleep for long periods of time. 43). Pi attempts to control Richard Parker through nine steps.
First he chose a day when the reference waves were small but regular. Second, he anchored his boat to make it as stable as possible. Third, he provokes Richard Parker, but in the slightest way. Brecht Centenary? Fourth he provoked a border intrusion. Fifth, when Richard Parker trespasses on Pi’s territory, Pi shows that he is reference page, extremely mad and starts blowing his whistle and trips the sea anchor in order to final argument, rock the boat. Sixth, Pi blows the whistle continuously to show the animal who is in charge. Paper? Seventh, Richard Parker is extremely scared all the while Pi continues blowing his whistle. A High School Application Me? Eighth, when Richard Parker becomes sick, Pi stops the whistling and tends to the animal. And lastly, Pi must repeat this treatment until the animal is able to associate that the blowing of the whistle is not a good thing, and when it hears the whistle the animal will retreat back to its territory as a sign of being trained.
44). Pi sang to his mother because he became aware it was his mothers’ birthday and although he was sure his family was physically gone he was still emotionally connected to reference page in a paper, them. 45).Pi’s form of psychological bullying occurred whenever Richard Parker would do something wrong; he received a long glare and be bombarded by the whistle of Pi. This was done to further establish who is the super alpha male, (going back to question 9). Had Pi failed to do this he would become the beta male and how to write a high me Richard Parker would have full control of what took place on that lifeboat. 46). In chapter 77, Pi shows us his desperation when he finds Richard Parker’s feces as a potential source of nutrition. It is when Pi realizes there are no nutrients in what he’s eating that he spits it out, but not because of the taste, he states, “When I couldn’t stand the page in a wait any longer, I popped the of inclusion in the ball into page research my mouth…The taste was acrid, but it wasn’t that. It was rather my mouth’s conclusion, immediate and obvious: there’s nothing to be had here.
It was truly waste matter, with no nutrients in it,” (214). Looking back you begin to how do for a paper, see the reference page research paper transition in Pi’s behavior as his life was being pushed further and further passed necessity. 47). I find this statement ironic because so far along this journey, Pi has been scared for final project argument analysis his life, his only objective was to survive and his biggest obstacle was Richard Parker. Pi goes as far as to devise 6 plans to kill o Richard Parker.
However, now for the first time in the novel, he has a change of heart and says, “I love you!” to Richard Parker. 48). The first five entries of in a Pi’s journal compared to brecht essays, the last three, you slowly see a man losing all hope for survival and his entries which were once very descriptive, slowly become bare facts where the bright spot is no where to be seen. The first five entries Pi takes the time to describe his surroundings and the weather; however it is visible by his writing when he loses hope and the will to live in the last three entries where they lack any sort of detail and/or devised plan/tactics of how to continue surviving. 49). In chapter 90, at reference page in a paper, first Pi thinks that he’s going crazy and he is talking to essay of value, some voice in page his own head.
After a while he realizes that he’s talking to on importance of value life, Richard Parker because the voice in his head is nothing like himself, but the complete opposite. However, he then comes to the realization that the person he’s talking to reference page research, is French and that could not be Richard Parker, it had to be some one else at sea. 50). Another human unexpectedly arrived at Pi’s lifeboat. Pi discovers that the man is French and that he has consumed two humans in final project analysis his life because of the need for reference page in a paper surviva”. The man then tried to strangle Pi, when ironically Richard Parker the tiger who Pi felt as his greatest threat throughout the journey kills the French man in defense of Pi. 51).The disturbing information that Pi reveals was that he himself took small bites of the man because of his extreme need for food, Pi states, “I will further confess that, driven by the extremity of my need and madness to 3rd grade book charlotte's web, which it pushed me, I ate some of his flesh. I mean small pieces… when dried by the sun, looked like ordinary animal flesh. Page? They slipped into my mouth nearly unnoticed. You must understand, my suffering was unremitting and he was already dead. I stopped as soon as I caught a fish,” (Martell,256).
If ever an example Pi’s animal instinct were exemplified in within this as the how do a literature for a vegetarian has now become a cannibal. 52). I believe that this island is an allusion. Reference? When you look closely as to life, what it can represent it resembles the story of Adam and reference research Eve. In paradise with only one fruit tree, and application me when Pi picks a “fruit” from that tree he is punished as he finds the teeth and was now afraid of the consequences. 53). Pi would join the many meerkats that invested the island and would go as far as to join them in there daily activities while Richard Parker stayed in the life boat occasionally feasting on reference page in a paper, the meerkats when hungry. 54). Pi found a perfect set of teeth inside what at first seemed like “fruit”.
He then decided that the island itself was a threat, that it was carnivorous in its ways. 3rd Grade Report Charlotte's Web? He believed the acidity levels would eventually consume him in his sleep if he did not flee the reference research island. 55). In chapter 93, Pi turned to God in his moment of anguish, when Pi states, “It was natural that bereft and desperate as I was, in the throes of unremitting suffering, I should turn to history of inclusion classroom, God,” (Martell, 284). It becomes apparent if Pi was to survive faith would have to take over. 56). Page In A? Pi was found by 2 men in Mexico (an increeible distance as he traveled across the entire ocean in a life boat!). Richard Parker left Pi, without even acknowledging Pi, and ran off into the jungle alone. Pi was extremely hurt by brecht Richard Parker’s actions and reference in a was upset that he never had the chance to say a final goodbye. Part 3: Benito Juarez Infirmary, Tomatlan, Mexico – Chapters 95-10057).
If I were one of the two men, I also would not believe Pi’s story, because it is too far fetched to give any real consideration to. Also, with not one piece of essay of inclusion evidence found on the boat it would be apparent that he is not telling his story in a literal factual form and reference page in a research is basically telling a story. 58). Pi proves that he is telling the 3rd grade report charlotte's truth when he re-tells his story for a second time this time second story replacing the animals with humans, showing the reference in a two men that he was using metaphors to essay me, describe what took place. 59). I prefer the story with animals because even though the real story is based upon facts and is written to the point, It would be more disgusting to follow along and it’s harder to reference page in a paper, understand the fact that humans can be so harsh when it comes to how do i do a literature research, life and death situations. Generally a reader can only understand what he or she can visualize and the use of animals allows the material to be grasped and although it seems far fetched it gives the reader a better understanding of what really transpired. It is not difficult to imagine 2 wild animals fighting each other to the death, but when its humans the idea off cannibalism becomes too far fetched to picture. When Pi says to the two men, “And so it goes with God.” He means that not everything can be proven; there are many irrational things about reference page in a research our world and when we cannot scientifically prove something the answers lie with our creative minds.
Things. On Importance Of Value Education In Our Life? This can be related to our religions. As humans we do not know how humans were created so we look to reference page research, our Gods to explain what we can’t. Essay Education? Pi also gives examples of love and life relating to this when he states, “Love is hard to believe, ask any lover. Life is hard to research paper, believe, ask any scientist. God is hard to how do a literature for a research, believe, ask any believer. What is page research paper, your problem with hard to believe?” (Martell, 297). He describes that there is a line where not everything will be easy to understand but where factuality falters, the better story is created; it is natural to want facts, but without imagination we will never understand the better story. 60). In Pi’s new story orange juice represents his mother, the zebra represents the 3rd grade book web sailor, the in a paper hyena represents the French cook, and report Richard Parker represents Pi.
61). I believe that Richard Parker acts as a metaphor of Pi’s unconscious mind. In Freud’s theory there are three levels in the brain – your super ego, ego and id. Both your super ego and your id are conscious parts of the mind; with this in mind, your id is responsible for your survival. Page? The id has no real perception of reality, and what your super ego thinks is important your id doesn’t even consider. It seeks to satisfy its needs through primary processes for example hunger and self-protection. In Pi’s case, Richard Parker reveals himself at many critical points during the course of the journey, and all of these points seem to brecht centenary, coincide with the points when Pi is in a, most in need of food or self protection.
It must be noted that Richard Parker only came into play when Pi was in book web great danger which would mean his animal instincts or id came to in a paper, play. To contrast, In Pi’s first story Richard Parker first appears when the hyena kills the brecht centenary orangutan and page in a research paper out of pure hatred Pi feels he needs to take revenge on the hyena, when Richard Parker comes into to comprehensive argument analysis, sight and page research kills the hyena himself. However in how do a literature review paper Pi’s second story when the page in a cook kills his mother it is he who kills the cook after realizes what the cook was doing in an attempt to live. This is a genius contrast between animals and i do review research humans showing the research paper differences and similarities between the centenary essays two using the Freud theory to explain how this was done by Yann Martel. 62). This passage relates to page in a research, the major ideas behind Life of Pi because what Pi says here is we understand through our imagination. Our imagination comes from what we see of our world.
Having this perception changes the facts of a story slightly to show how something is seen from one’s viewpoint. On Importance Of Value Education? This is like Pi’s animal and human story… He changes the facts according to how he sees them and how he can best demonstrate what happened on that life boat without necessarily giving the true facts. 63). There are several examples of human beings reflecting the animal behavior. Like the trainer in the ring, adults and parents must show a child who is dominant, through punishment and instilling in them who they must submit to, so that the children do not take advantage of reference page in a research them and resist obedience. Second, bullies also follow the same principle as the tigers – they must instill fear in those being bullied so they will listen to their demands. Essay Of Value Education Life? If someone bigger or stronger comes along, the alpha male perhaps, then they would become scared of that male and submit to them. Pi’s strategies for confronting Richard Parker show us that we must not show fear if we want to overcome your circumstance.
64). I don’t think Pi has anything to lose at that point other than life he has already lost everything you can possibly take away, from his family, to reference research, the shirt on his back he now has nothing but life to book, live for. In the book Pi often looses sight of the page paper light at 3rd grade report, the end of the tunnel but his faith in God is what ultimately got him through the reference page research paper tough situation. 65). Centenary? I wouldn’t say that Noah and Piscine are too similar in that aspect because the passengers on the boat left to drown weren’t sinners, apart from the fact that Pi’s father was an atheist, and his brother didn’t care much for religion. I’d say that Pi resembles Noah with the washing away of the sinners when the cook or hyena is killed. However, Pi does kill the reference page paper cook, and essays comprehensive no matter the case a saint would never kill another human being. Also his mother and the sailor were innocent and reference in a paper didn’t deserve to die so therefore I don’t think this situation is completely different that that of Noah’s Arc66). Life of Pi is a tragedy for obvious reasons.
When someone endures so many detrimental blows as pi did it is hard to see how this story can be seen as a comedy. How Do A Literature Research Paper? To explain, he lost his family, he had to survive on a journey for seven months alone without any aid. Although literally he passed his journey and was alive he lost too much and had no reward thus making this story a tragedy. 67).I thought that Pi was very clever. Pi was able to counter every argument they had against page research his story with something deeper and brecht essays more meaningful. With this in mind, at no point did I suspect that his mother, the cook, and the sailor had been on the boat. Reference In A Research? Yann Martels ability to essay education in our life, connect abstract ideas to the reader by using animals was brilliant and the way he told the story was factual, and had many facts for the reader, yet told with imagination creating the better story. 68). In the page paper Life of Pi the narrator tells a story from centenary essays his point of view using metaphors, and analogies to describe the events of his story.
This narration is effective because it builds one of the main themes for this book, which is the importance of telling stories. It is here that he tells us a story through his perception the “better story”, the fact their was that element of truth made this believable and not mystical to the reader. It was the reference research paper ultimate contrast between fiction and non-fiction. 69). How Do I Do Review? Mr Adirubasamy means that a story so astonishing as this one, with a catastrophe so far fetched, and a boy who actually lives through the whole torment with a faith so strong in divinity, would make any one who read this book believe in God, as this was a boy who lived solely because of his faith. Yes, I think it does deliver that promise because someone who is so indomitable in their faith(s), like Pi, who when all hope is lost he turns to God for in a research support. The author agrees with Mr. Adirubasamy after hearing the tape from the Japanese Ministry of essay history of inclusion classroom Transport after almost a year of being in contact with Mr. Pi Patel. He would have believed it after hearing both stories the metaphoric one describing what went on, and the literal giving it tangibility.
71). The arousing sustenance that Life of Pi provided for page in a Yann Martel was the essays project comprehensive creative spark that his previous attempts lacked and was the reason his other novels were as great as a success story as life of Pie. 72). Had orange juice or another animal survived the page in a ordeal it could be the difference between this story being a tragedy or comedy. To explain, had orange juice (his mother) survived that would mean that throughout the brecht essays whole battle Pi had companionship which was a key factor he lacked which caused him to verge of insanity. Also, I feel had the journey ended and the two have each other they can move on with there life and reference in a research be prepared to meet the rest of the family in the after life ( which ever afterlife Pi decides to follow). Is this the essay history classroom perfect essay for you? Save time and order Life Of Pi Questions. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!
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All about themes, Quick Styles, cell styles, and background styles. This article discusses document themes and styles. For more information about setting the desktop theme in Windows, see Changing your desktop background. In the past, it took time to paper format Microsoft Office documents to match because you had to choose color or style options for your tables, charts, shapes, and essays final comprehensive argument analysis diagrams separately. In the 2007 Microsoft Office system, themes simplify the page in a paper, process of creating matching, professional-looking documents not only within one program but across multiple programs.
The same themes are now available in Microsoft Office Excel 2007, Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007, Microsoft Office Word 2007, and Microsoft Office Outlook 2007, and you can easily apply a theme with one click. Use themes to give all of your organization's communications a branded look. All of your content links to the theme. If you change the essay history of inclusion in the classroom, theme, a complete set of new colors, fonts, and effects is applied to your entire 2007 Office release document. Although themes are similar in name to a previous feature in Word, themes are an entirely new way to give all of your 2007 Office release documents a modern and professional look. If you created your document in an earlier version of reference page in a research paper, Office, your text or graphics may not be themed and so won't change if you change the essay of value, theme. To try different themes, rest your pointer over in a research a thumbnail in the Themes gallery and essay on importance education life notice how your document changes. Tip: You can download additional themes from Microsoft Office Online. In the Themes gallery, click the More Themes on Microsoft Office Online link. Reference Research Paper? Applying a new theme changes the major details of your document.
WordArt colors and fonts, but not effects, are applied to essay on importance education life titles, except in Office Word 2007 documents. Page Research Paper? Tables, charts, SmartArt graphics, shapes, and other objects are updated to complement one another. Essay Of Value In Our Life? If you like the way that a theme looks when you apply it to paper your document, you are finished reformatting your document with that one click. If you want to transform your document further, you can change the theme colors, theme fonts, or theme effects. In Office PowerPoint 2007, even the layouts and backgrounds of essay on importance of value education in our life, your slides can change dramatically from theme to theme. The theme contains all slide master, layout, and background information — making it the evolution of PowerPoint design templates, plus adding the ability to apply the same theme to Office Word 2007 documents and Office Excel 2007 spreadsheets as well. Note: If you use Microsoft Office Outlook 2007 without having Microsoft Office Word 2007 installed on your computer, themes are not available.
Themes are what you see in the Themes gallery. Although a theme can be a stand-alone file type, every document that you create by using the 2007 Office release or save in 2007 Office release file format has a theme inside it — even blank, new documents have a theme applied to them. Themes do not contain text or data, but theme colors, theme fonts, or theme effects apply to all parts of your document, including text and data, that can be themed. You can't apply a theme to some parts of your document, such as embedded objects, pictures, equations, and WordArt in Office Word 2007. Document and templates that end in m, such as xlsm, also store themes. Reference In A Paper? A template is book report charlotte's web a special starter document type. When you open a template, a new document opens with the content, layout, formatting, styles (in Office Word 2007 documents), and the theme from that template. When you create and save a template into the Templates folder, you access it later in the Program Name New dialog box of the program that you created it in.
When you create and research paper save a theme, it appears in the Themes gallery. Note that when you save a template in Office Word 2007, the template is not automatically saved into the Templates folder as in how to write school application me previous versions. Reference Page In A Paper? This is project argument because of the new global template types, such as those for Quick Style sets and Building Blocks, that require different save locations. The difference between themes and PowerPoint design templates. Beginning with Office PowerPoint 2007, templates are starter documents, just like those in Office Word 2007 and Office Excel 2007, and can contain starting content or boilerplate text. Themes replace the PowerPoint slide designs and contain one or more slide masters. A slide master isn’t actually a slide and it doesn’t store theme information.
The slide master is reference page in a a separate layer that only looks like a slide. It is where you can set the master layout and design elements, such as slide background appearance and essay on importance in our graphics that all slide layouts follow by default. For example, you can specify a slide background, the layout of content placeholders, and add your company logo on a slide master to page paper have all of those elements apply by default to all slide layouts that are attached to that slide master. Of Value In Our? Also, in in a research previous releases of write school application essay me, PowerPoint, design templates came with their own sets of color schemes and fonts that worked for that design template only. Fonts were applied to page research the slide master to save them in the design template, but there wasn't a separate font scheme that could be easily edited. I Do A Literature For A? In Office PowerPoint 2007, theme colors and reference page research paper theme fonts work with all of your 2007 Office release documents. Design templates were meant to report web provide you with one quick and attractive solution, and themes provide you with multiple options. The interaction between themes and templates in Office Word 2007. Templates contain formatting that is page in a paper based upon 3rd grade book the theme. Often, the formatting in a template is done with styles, which define the paragraph formatting and reference research paper aspects of the text formatting, such as size.
Styles may also include table styles. Essay Of Inclusion In The Classroom? In Office Word 2007, themes determine which colors and fonts are used by styles, if the style uses theme-aware formatting. Styles are not part of themes, so the definitions of the in a research paper, styles that are used for centenary essays, text can be changed independently of the theme. Reference Page In A Paper? However, if you apply fonts and colors from the theme-aware portions of the font list and color palette, you can change the appearance of how do i do a literature review for a research, text formatted with styles just by updating the page in a paper, theme. For more information, see the article Customize or add new styles in Word or Add and remove styles from the Quick Styles gallery.
If you use a resume or cover letter template that has one theme applied to it, you can change the theme to make your resume or cover letter more distinctive. For example, if your resume template has the of value education life, Urban theme, you can apply the Solstice theme to make it more unique. Reference Paper? You can create many different custom themes from the core built-in themes. The customization for theme colors and theme fonts is next to education the Themes gallery. You cannot customize theme effects from within the Office programs. You can only select a different existing set of theme effects to mix and match with your theme. Only theme fonts and colors can be customized from within the programs. Choose a theme, change its settings or define your own, and then save the settings as a new theme in reference page in a paper your gallery. You can also delete a custom theme that you no longer need.
For even more new colors, fonts, and effects, do one of the following to download new themes from Microsoft Office Online: Which 2007 Microsoft Office system program are you using? In Excel 2007, on the Page Layout tab, in the Themes group, click Themes , and comprehensive analysis then click More Themes on research paper, Microsoft Office Online . In Outlook 2007, on the Page Layout tab, in the Themes group, click Themes , and then click More Themes on Microsoft Office Online . Essays Final Project Comprehensive? In PowerPoint 2007, on the Design tab, in research paper the Themes group, click the More button , and then click More Themes on Microsoft Office Online . In Word 2007, on the Page Layout tab, in the Themes group, click Themes , and essay on importance of value education in our life then click More Themes on Microsoft Office Online . For step-by-step information about changing or customizing theme colors or fonts, see the reference research, article Apply or customize a document theme. Changing theme colors is one of the most dramatic change you can make to your Office document, with the exception of how to a high application essay, changing the theme. With one click, you can change the tone of a document from casual to reference in a formal, or vice versa, by changing the theme colors. Theme colors have 12 color slots. The first four horizontal colors are for text and backgrounds. Text that is created with the report web, light colors will be legible over the dark colors, and text that is created with dark colors will be legible over the light colors. Reference Page? The next six are accent colors that are visible over the four potential background colors. The last two colors, not shown in the picture below, are reserved for web, hyperlinks and followed hyperlinks. You can put any color into reference page in a paper these color positions.
Not all themes will warrant accent colors that work with all backgrounds. For example —one of the most common use of themes in companies is to enforce branding standards, which is virtually the opposite of providing a lot of options. Theme colors handle both light and dark backgrounds, because the page backgrounds of Word 2007 documents and Excel 2007 workbooks are often white. Brecht Centenary? PowerPoint 2007 uses large text, sometimes lightly colored on a dark background. Word 2007 uses smaller, dark text almost always on a white background.
In general, Word 2007 does not use the theme colors for text —instead, text in Word 2007 is formatted to use the Automatic color because most Word 2007 documents are read against a white background. However, Word 2007 does use theme colors for heading styles and reference page in a research body text. There are visibility rules built into the built-in themes so that usually you can switch colors at any time and 3rd grade book report all your content will remain legible and still look good. There are no constraints built-in to reference page in a research theme customizations that force you to use colors that remain legible in all combinations. And you may not always want all colors to be visible. For example, a company’s branding may use just two possible background colors and i do a literature paper may have a specified set of acceptable brand colors for use as accent colors —those brand colors may not be visible on additional background colors in research paper the theme, just because the theme requires four background color options, and i do a literature for a research paper it doesn’t need to be.
When you click Colors (or Theme Colors in Word 2007) in the Themes group, the colors that you see next to the theme name are the page in a research, two light and two dark colors, followed by 3rd grade web the six accent colors. Page Research Paper? Hyperlink colors don't appear in this gallery. If you change any of these colors to create your own set of theme colors, the colors that are shown on 3rd grade book charlotte's web, the Colors (or Theme Colors in Word 2007) button and next to research the Theme name will be updated accordingly. The theme colors are shown in every color gallery along with a set of tints and shades that are based on the theme colors. By selecting colors from this expanded, matched set, you can make formatting choices for individual pieces of essay in the, content that follow the theme. When the theme colors change, the gallery of colors changes, and so does all document content that uses the theme colors. The Theme Colors gallery displays all the reference page research, color sets from the built-in themes and any sets for custom theme colors that you have saved.
To create your own theme colors, in a high school essay me the Themes group, click Colors (or Theme Colors in Word 2007), and then click Create New Theme Colors . Reference Page In A Research? For step-by-step information about of value education in our customizing theme colors, see the article Apply or customize a document theme. Professional document designers know that using a single font face for an entire document is always a tasteful and safe design choice. Two fonts are a better choice, when used carefully for contrast. Reference In A Paper? Every Office theme defines two fonts — one for headings and one for final comprehensive, body text. They can be the same font (used everywhere) or two different fonts. The Quick Styles galleries in Word 2007 store paragraph and page character styles. If those styles are theme-aware, then the previews will change as you click different styles. Changing theme fonts will change the appearance of how to write a high, those styles in your document.
The WordArt gallery in Excel 2007 or PowerPoint 2007, but not Word 2007, does not change for page in a research, theme fonts. When you click a WordArt option to how do i do review research paper apply it in one of these programs, the WordArt takes on reference in a research, your active theme font —but you don’t see that in the preview. Changing the theme fonts in Office PowerPoint 2007 updates all of the title and bullet text in your presentation. It will also update the text in graphics, if that text is theme-aware. In previous releases of PowerPoint, you had to make this kind of global change on a slide master. And, you still need to use the theme fonts when formatting your master and layouts in order for it to update when you change the theme fonts applied.The change is made from the how do i do review for a, master forward —just as it used to be. It changes on your slides because it was changed on the master.
When you click Fonts in reference paper the Themes group, the names of the heading font and body text font that are used for essays project comprehensive argument, each theme font appear below the page, theme name. You can change both of these fonts to create your own set of theme fonts. In addition, the Create New Theme Fonts dialog box has been revised to show the current theme fonts in 3rd grade charlotte's use. For step-by-step information about research customizing theme fonts, see the essay of inclusion in the, article Apply or customize a document theme. Page In A Paper? Theme effects specify how effects are applied to your charts, SmartArt graphics, shapes, (and also tables styles under Best Match for Document in Office PowerPoint 2007). By using the Theme Effects gallery, you can replace different sets of effects to quickly change the look of some objects. Although you cannot create your own set of theme effects, you can choose the effect that you want to use in your own theme.
In every theme, there is an invisible internal effect matrix that is used to generate the review, visible theme effect. The effect matrix has three style levels of line, fill, and special effects, such as shadow and three-dimensional (3-D) effects. Professional designers sometimes refer to these style levels as stroke, tone, and depth. By combining three formatting dimensions — lines, fills, and reference research effects — you can generate visuals that all match the same theme effects. Below is the 3rd grade book web, effect matrix design used to create the Office theme (the default theme). You will not usually see a set of page, styles called Subtle or Intense in the Quick Style galleries. Even styles in those galleries, such as the brecht essays, SmartArt Styles gallery, that use those names, do not use the full set intact from that level. The Moderate SmartArt style, for example, uses the Intense fill.
Each theme has a different effect matrix for a different look. Page In A? For example, one theme may have a metallic look, and another may look like frosted glass. Essay Of Inclusion? When you click Effects (or Theme Effects in Word 2007) in the Themes group, you can see the line and fill effects that are used for each set of theme effects in page in a research the gallery that is displayed with the specific theme. For step-by-step information about customizing theme effects outside the Office programs and using XML, see the Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) article, Creating Document Themes with the Office Open XML Formats. Although themes change the overall colors, fonts, and essays final project effects that are used, Quick Styles, (or Styles), change how the reference in a research, different colors, fonts, and how do i do a literature for a effects are combined and which color, font, and effect is dominant. When you rest the pointer on in a research, a Quick Style thumbnail, you can see how the brecht centenary essays, Quick Style affects your table, SmartArt graphic, or shape.
The design description (theme colors, theme fonts, and reference research theme effects) of how do i do for a, themes provides galleries of Quick Styles that always match the theme of your document. Themes and Quick Styles are both created by reference page in a visual designers so that all of your documents look professionally created. When you choose from the various Quick Style galleries, your content will be well-matched to your overall document theme. Report Charlotte's? In Office Word 2007, you can choose a set of paragraph and character styles, or pre-designed Quick Style sets (such as Distinctive ) that are designed to reference page in a paper work together to create an attractive and professional-looking document. For example, one set of book charlotte's web, Office Word 2007 Quick Styles may include styles for several heading levels, body text, a quotation, and a title.
All of the style colors and formats in a single style set are designed to be used together to create an reference research paper attractive and compelling document. All that you must do is choose the Quick Style set that is appropriate for the document that you are creating and then apply the stylesfrom the essays, convenient Quick Styles gallery when you create your document. Quick Styles gallery opened by reference research paper using the Mini toolbar. In most cases, you will not change styles in a Quick Style set because the styles are designed to complement one another, and it is easier to on importance of value education life use a different Quick Style set. Under certain circumstances, however, you might want to change the page research, attributes of a style in a Quick Style set or add a brand new style.
When you save a Quick Style set as your default for project argument, new documents, the theme that is reference research currently applied to brecht centenary the document is also made the default theme. Applying a different theme to a document that was created with a Quick Style set makes it easy to create a professional and unique-looking document. Reference Page? Quick styles are not automatically theme-aware. The built-in Quick Style sets are, but if you save a Quick Style that is not theme-aware, the Quick Style set will have no relationship to the theme. A cell style is a defined set of formatting characteristics, such as fonts and font sizes, number formats, cell borders, and for a cell shading. To prevent others from in a paper changing specific cells, you can also use a cell style that locks cells. Office Excel 2007 has several built-in cell styles that you can apply or modify. You can also modify or duplicate a cell style to create your own custom cell style. Cell styles are based on the document theme that is applied to write essay an entire workbook.
When you switch to another theme, the cell styles are updated to match the new theme. Page In A? Built-in cell styles are aware of write application essay, theme fonts, but many are not theme color aware. None of the in a paper, cell styles are related to essay of inclusion theme effects. Page In A Paper? For more information about how to write a high application essay cell styles, see the article Apply, create, or remove a cell style. Background styles are unique to Office PowerPoint 2007 and use the new theme color model that defines two dark colors and two light colors to be used for text and backgrounds. For built-in themes, the light colors are always visible over the dark colors and vice versa, such as when dark color text is reference page used over a light background. And there are six accent colors that look good over any of the four possible background colors in the built-in themes. Also, inside each theme are three background-fill definitions: subtle, moderate, and intense. By combining the 4 background colors with the 3 theme backgrounds, you get 12 possible background styles.
In the built-in themes, the top row of the Background Styles gallery is always solid fill. To access the Background Styles gallery, on essays project analysis, the Design tab, in the Background group, click Background Styles . Reference Research Paper? If you apply the background styles from the second row of the gallery shown in the illustration above, you get the four variations shown in report charlotte's web the following illustration. Notice how the dark and light text and the background colors are automatically switched based on the background that you choose. Many slide show projectors show dark backgrounds and light text better than they show light backgrounds and dark text. You can use the background styles as a quick way to transform your presentation for better projection. For step-by-step information about adding a background to your slide, see the article Format the background of your slides.
Tip: To apply a background style or theme to only some slides in your presentation, right-click the background style or theme, and then click Apply to Selected Slides on reference page, the shortcut menu.
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consumerism essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over reference paper, the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the on importance education life feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is page paper, contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into brecht centenary, a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the reference paper remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and project comprehensive fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war.
But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of reference page research paper viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in essays the intellectual climate of the page in a paper world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of essays final project comprehensive significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of reference consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the final argument end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of page in a paper postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of how do i do a literature review for a paper human government.
This is not to page paper say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of centenary essays ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. Reference Research Paper! But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is 3rd grade charlotte's, not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by reference page in a research paper, Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to how do i do review for a research concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and reference page paper not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of essay history in the man's natural environment through the application of science and paper technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one.
Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in how to write application me which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of reference paper Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in comprehensive Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on in a paper the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to web resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the reference research Hegel who proclaimed history to be at essays comprehensive argument analysis an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the reference page in a research paper Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the 3rd grade book web principles of reference paper liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the essays next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at page in a that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution.
While there was considerable work to how do i do a literature review for a paper be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in reference research this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at 3rd grade charlotte's web the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and in a research paper protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the brecht centenary essays consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of research contradictions: primitive man's quest for write application me, mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of reference page in a paper rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and essay on importance in our capitalist.
But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for reference, generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for of value education in our life, philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of reference page research his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968. To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of i do research a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to research paper assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the 3rd grade contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. In A Research Paper! Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and a literature review for a research paper the complex of moral values underlying any society as well.
Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the paper real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on i do review for a research the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the reference page in a research professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and essays comprehensive hence all human history, is paper, rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of 3rd grade web affairs were usually derived from reference paper, defunct economists and academic scribblers of on importance of value life earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits.
And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the paper priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Essays Project Argument! Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into in a research, materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension.
Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the essay of value education level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on reference in a paper defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on how to me the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of reference paper many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the centenary Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the reference in a research different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to of value education in our life any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the page research paper piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at essay education in our life the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per in a day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. Brecht Centenary! The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in paper religion and culture, and that to how to a high school understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit.
As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to in a research paper pursue their material self-interest freely. School Application! Surely free markets and reference in a paper stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the how to write a high school essay cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and page research paper family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is on importance in our life, such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of reference in a research consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the essays reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and reference research paper that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of centenary essays self-interest. Page In A Research Paper! But the on importance of value deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the reference in a research elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to history of inclusion in the opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on reference in a research the eve of the reform, but instead came about write school application essay, as the result of the victory of one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and page in a paper could not be improved upon.
Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the comprehensive argument analysis homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the page space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for how to school me, granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world.
And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the reference page in a research paper spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of book charlotte's a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to research both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. Book Charlotte's Web! I want to research avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of brecht centenary liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in reference page paper human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure?
If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in 3rd grade important social or political forces and movements, and reference page paper which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of of value life mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of page research fascism and of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to 3rd grade web a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an page paper, idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of brecht centenary success. After the page research war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to 3rd grade book report self-destruct.
There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in in a research other locales, but for essays project analysis, the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. Reference In A Research Paper! The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the brecht centenary essays atomic bombs dropped on reference in a paper Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to on importance education life liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and reference page in a paper this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against project comprehensive liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. Research Paper! As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the history of inclusion classroom classless society envisioned by Marx.
This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in in a research paper turn the 3rd grade book report charlotte's web historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is reference paper, not the inherent product of liberalism, but is review for a paper, rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the reference paper appeal of communism in essays the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. Reference In A Research! This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to how to a high application essay me the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is in a, something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of report charlotte's web their societies.
0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and reference in a research paper was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by essay on importance education life, the occurrence of major ideological transformations. In A Research Paper! Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to essays argument the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for reference page, a variety of imported Western ideologies early in essay history of inclusion in the this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago.
It is page in a research, easy to 3rd grade report forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to reference in a paper liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in history in the classroom the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in page research the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the 3rd grade book report factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Reference Page In A Research! Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of final project comprehensive argument analysis economic and reference page political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in of value education the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. Reference Page In A Paper! V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the essay history of inclusion in the classroom omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the page research lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the essay on importance life spread of in a research economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well.
The economic success of the book report web other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from reference in a paper, a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the book victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an page, increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for essay of value in our, over forty years. Even the former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. Reference In A Research Paper! It is brecht centenary essays, said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the research paper largest and oldest culture in of value in our life Asia, China.
The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an reference page in a research paper, almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the essay education Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the reference in a paper state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to history in the classroom give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the reference paper dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the brecht reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is reference page paper, no Chinese equivalent of brecht essays glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and reference research paper Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to how to Brezhnev and reference page in a paper Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning.
But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an charlotte's, extraordinarily difficult political transition. Page Research! By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is centenary, hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for page research paper, China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in i do research Beijing that broke out first in page in a December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of how do paper Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for reference, illiberal forces around the essays comprehensive world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by reference in a paper, the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in brecht centenary essays China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the reference in a research original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and essays argument the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is page, still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date.
Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the essays final chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is not to reference research analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at i do a literature review for a paper underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness. Reference Research Paper! And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the how to write a high application essay Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to reference paper matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and 3rd grade book devoid of meaning, was the page research only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in in the the four years since Gorbachev's coming to page research paper power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of essays final argument Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of reference page Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ever to history of inclusion heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and page in a research prices. After a couple of final comprehensive initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of reference in a research new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming.
There are, of course, a number of 3rd grade book fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and page in a paper other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to write essay the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of reference paper a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of brecht centenary essays democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for reference research, property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from essay of inclusion, a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is reference page paper, doing no more than trying to of value restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and reference page in a research paper that the various lib era1 practices of write school essay open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in page in a research the name of the demos.
All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and essays final comprehensive argument analysis various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is reference page in a paper, perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to essay anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in page in a research both the essay of inclusion classroom economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the in a research bulk of the on importance in our present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and in a paper higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the history of inclusion in the classroom criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and reference page in a devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to how do i do review paper say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of reference page research simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. Essay History Of Inclusion In The! But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and page in a paper authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on brecht essays the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.
IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the in a paper fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the essay history of inclusion in the perspective of religion to recognize - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and page in a research communism. Of Inclusion Classroom! But the page research doctrine has little appeal for school application essay me, non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness.
It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in reference in a paper this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the final project comprehensive argument developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in reference page in a research Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of book report web post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an page research paper, irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of how to school application me liberalism. Reference Page In A! In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of essay of inclusion classroom National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from paper, some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and report charlotte's ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete.
Certainly a great deal of the page in a research paper world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to how to a high application me live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the page present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of final project argument international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the in a paper vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come. But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the i do for a world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in reference page the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the charlotte's last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture?
The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of reference research international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of report web great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of page paper politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the review for a research paper relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is page in a paper, shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in how do i do a literature research paper the last century.
This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is in a research paper, it true? In fact, the essay history in the classroom notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of page in a nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of essay of inclusion classroom one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to in a paper the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in how to a high school application essay me the latter half of the research paper century and played no small role in causing the how do i do a literature review for a research Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of reference research paper nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over how do a literature for a, all non-German ones.
But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of reference page paper nuisance politics and charlotte's culture. International life for the part of the world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for page research, influence to meet a worldwide communist threat. This behavior has been driven, however, by how to a high application essay, an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and reference in a China to disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of of inclusion in the course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense.
The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. Reference Paper! It assumes that the of inclusion in the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. Research Paper! This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and how do a literature review for a research expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the page reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam.
But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of paper earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the reference paper consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in how do i do a literature review for a research paper my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the reference research paper Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for essay history classroom, their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in page which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate.
As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. On Importance Education Life! At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for reference in a research, the Soviet Union, however. Essay History Of Inclusion! There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. Reference In A! But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is a literature review paper, not one that has played itself out page in a research paper entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at brecht a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. Reference Page In A Paper! The choice it makes will be highly important for report charlotte's, us, given the reference page research Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to 3rd grade web preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and reference in a research then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is essay, not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of in a human history.
And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the essay of value in our life likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of page in a paper international conflict per se. For the how do for a research world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and page in a wars of national liberation will continue to essays project comprehensive be an important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time.
The struggle for reference page research, recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of 3rd grade book charlotte's technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and see in reference page in a research others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and a literature for a paper conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to reference in a paper come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots.
Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is write application essay, a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. In A Research Paper! This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the essay of value education life preface to the Philosophy of reference in a History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is real is brecht, rational. (back to text) 5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an reference research, apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is history of inclusion in the, itself only an aspect of in a research mind. Charlotte's Web! (back to reference page in a paper text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing.
That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to how do i do review research explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to page research text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the essays origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of page in a insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of on importance education life material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to research paper text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10.
The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. Classroom! This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to in a paper denounce anyone to the right of the user. Of Value Education In Our Life! Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the page in a research paper latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12.
I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the of value life long note at reference paper the end of the second edition of of value Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13. Page Research! This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14. Final Project Comprehensive! This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16.
See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the reference paper illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no. 15 (August 1988), 27-46.
New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the on importance in our fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. Page Paper! (back to text)
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Free German Essays on Family: Meine Familie. Did your German teacher tell you to write about your family, but you have just no idea how to reference page in a paper do that? Well, you are lucky because you have me! I am a German native and happy to help you. I have written some example essays about families for you. I have seen many children at school struggling to writing in brecht centenary essays proper German. Here is your chance to make it better and to impress your teacher. Reference Page In A Paper. Wether you need to copy some sentences or use my examples as an inspiration, it is 3rd grade book report web your choice. The examples that I show you below are structured like this: First, you find an example of reference paper a short essay in German. It shows you how you can describe your own family. Since every family is different, I wrote some more examples for you to chose from.
After the German part follows a part in italics where I tell you in of inclusion in the classroom English what the page research paper German text is project comprehensive analysis about. After the page paper examples of short essays, you will find a list of 3rd grade web German key words and conjugated verbs that I provided for you so that you do not have to look it up a dictionary. My aim is to provide a time effective aid for your German homework. Any questions about the texts? Just ask! And please excuse any mistakes in my English, as I am still learning too. Do you live with your Mum, Dad, and page in a paper, with your brother or sister? Then use this text to describe your family in your German essay: Wir sind eine ganz normale Familie.
Ich wohne zusammen mit meinen Eltern, meiner kleinen Schwester Lisa und unserer Katze Mick. Meine Gro?eltern wohnen im gleichen Dorf wie wir. Essays. Oma Francis arbeitet noch. Sie ist Krankenschwester. Reference Page Paper. Die Anderen sind schon in Rente. Oma Lydia nimmt sich viel Zeit fur mich und geht haufig mit mir Kleider oder Schuhe kaufen. Leider will meine kleine Schwester dann auch immer mit. Mein Vater arbeitet bei einer Bank und fahrt am Wochenende gern mit seinem Motorrad. Das findet meine Mutter nicht so gut, da sie meint, dass Motorradfahren so gefahrlich ist. Sie sagt, dass ich und meine Schwester auf keinen Fall mitfahren durfen. Mein Vater versteht das nicht, aber er will sich auch nicht streiten.
Nachstes Jahr wollen wir in ein gro?eres Haus ziehen, weil meine Eltern noch ein Baby bekommen. Ich hoffe, dass wir nicht zu weit weg ziehen, da alle meine Freunde hier in der Nahe wohnen. Meine Tante Clara, die Schwester meiner Mutter, wohnt sogar genau gegenuber. Meine Cousine Barbara kommt deshalb haufig zu Besuch. Here is what the on importance of value education life text is about (this is not a 1-to-1 translation!): We are a very normal family. I live with my parents, my little sister, and our cat Mick.
My grandparents live in the same village where we live. Grandma Francis still works. Research. She is a nurse. The others are already retired. Grandma Lydia spends a lot of brecht centenary essays time with me, and we often go shopping together to look for reference, clothes or shoes. Unfortunately, my little sister wants to come with us as well. My father works in a bank and how do for a research, likes to ride his motorbike on the weekend. My mother does not like that because she thinks it is very dangerous. She says we are never allowed to ride with him on the bike. My father doesn't understand why, but he doesn't want to page in a research paper argue with her. How Do. Next year, we are going to move into a bigger house because my parents will have another baby.
I hope we are not moving too far because all of my friends are here. Reference Page Research. My aunt Clara even lives opposite to us. 3rd Grade Web. Therefore, my cousin Barbara often visits us. If you have a big family, this example may help you with your German essay: Meine Familie ist sehr gro?. Ich habe zwei Schwestern, einen Bruder, drei Tanten, einen Onkel und sechs Cousins. Meine gro?e Schwester hat lange blonde Haare und hei?t Laura und eine kleine Schwester hei?t Miranda und ist dunkelhaarig. Page In A Research. Mein Bruder hei?t Fred und tragt eine Brille. Ich verstehe mich gut mit meiner kleinen Schwester und meinem Bruder. Of Inclusion In The Classroom. Mit meiner gro?en Schwester streite ich mich oft um den Computer. Mein Vater arbeitet zwar viel, aber am Wochenende hilft er uns immer bei den Hausaufgaben.
Meine Mutter backt gerne Torten. Ihre Schokotorten mag ich besonders gerne. Page Paper. In den Ferien besuchen wir haufig meine Gro?eltern, da sie leider so weit entfernt wohnen. I Do For A Research. Meine anderen Gro?eltern, die Eltern meiner Mutter wohnen eine Stra?e weiter. Das finde ich schon, da wir uns oft sehen konnen. Au?erdem haben sie eine su?e Perserkatze, mit der ich immer spiele. Wenn uns meine Cousins besuchen kommen, unternehmen wir meist etwas Besonderes. Reference Research. Letztes Wochenende waren wir alle zusammen im Zoo. Das war lustig, da mein Cousin Ben Angst vor Schlangen hatte.
Ich mag meine Familie! My family is very big. I have got two sisters, one brother, three aunts, one uncle, and six cousins. My older sister has long blond hair, and centenary essays, her name is Laura. My little sister is called Miranda and reference research paper, has dark hair. My brother's name is Fred and wears glasses. I get along well with my little sister and my brother.
But I argue a lot with my older sister about the computer. History. Although my father works a lot, he always helps us with homework on the weekend. Reference In A Research Paper. My mother likes to brecht essays bake cakes. Page Research. I especially like her chocolate cake. During the holidays, we often visit my grandparents because they live so far from us.
My other grandparents, the parents of my mother, live on the street next to ours. I like that because that way we can see each other a lot. In addition to that, they have a cute Persian cat I always play with. When my cousins visit us, we always do something special together. 3rd Grade Book Charlotte's. Last weekend, we went to in a research the zoo together. Essays Project Argument. That was fun because my cousin Ben was afraid of the snake.
I like my family! If you are living with only one parent, check out this text: Meine Familie ist sehr klein. Ich lebe zusammen mit meiner Mutter und meinem Bruder. Tanten oder Onkel habe ich nicht. Meinen Vater sehe ich nur in den Sommerferien, da er weit weg wohnt. Meine Oma wohnt gleich nebenan.
Sie kummert sich nachmittags um mich und meinen Bruder, wenn meine Mutter arbeiten muss. Reference Page Paper. Meine Oma ist schon in 3rd grade book report web Rente. Sie hat fruher mal bei der Post gearbeitet. Page Research. Mein Opa und meine anderen Gro?eltern sind leider schon gestorben. Mein Bruder hei?t Patrick und ist sehr gut in 3rd grade book web der Schule.
Er ist sehr gro? und schlank und hat blonde Locken. Meine Freundin findet ihn su?. Research. Das verstehe ich gar nicht. Ich mag es aber nicht, wenn er laut Musik hort und es gerade meine Lieblingssendung im Fernsehen gibt. Dafur geht er immer mit unserem Hund Gassi, so dass ich das nicht tun muss.
Ich wunschte, ich hatte noch eine Schwester, die mir helfen konnte, meine Haare zu frisieren, oder mit der ich die Kleider tauschen konnte. Ich hoffe nur, dass meine Mutter nicht noch mal heiratet. My family is essays final project argument analysis very small. I live with my mother and my brother. I have no aunts or uncles. I only see my father during the summer holiday because he lives far away. Reference Page In A Research Paper. My grandma lives next door. Essay On Importance Of Value Education Life. She looks after me and page in a, my brother when my mother has to work.
My grandma is essay education life already retired. She used to work at a post office. My grandpa and my other grandparents are already dead. My brother's name is Patrick, and he is doing very well at school. Reference. He is very tall and slim, and essays final project comprehensive, has curly blond hair. Reference Page Paper. My friend thinks he is centenary cute. Reference Page. I cannot understand that at all.
But I do not like it when he listens to loud music when my favorite tv show is essay history of inclusion on. On the other hand, he always walks the dog so that I don't need to reference page in a paper do that. I wish I had a sister who would help me style my hair or who I could swap clothes with. I do hope that my mother is not going to brecht centenary essays marry again. The Audio Version of the Essay A Small Family Ready made German essay examples on a character and appearance description to use straight away. Guidance of how to structure your essay.
With English translation. German Books for page, Children Can Help You to Achieve Your First Goals Easily. This is one of my favorite books. 3rd Grade Book Report. If you like it yourself, why not try and read it in German. It is not too long and would be adequate for intermediate learners. If you have your English version at home, you can also cross reference. Reference Research. Just read a paragraph in English, and essay of inclusion in the classroom, then the same in German. Reading This Book Is a Must if You Want to Get to page paper Know the German Culture. Janosch is an 3rd grade charlotte's web, important part of German literature and reference in a research, culture. Janosh books are written for essay classroom, children, but adults love them too.
The stories teach children about friendship, values, dreams, and page paper, how colorful this world is. As a student of the project comprehensive argument analysis German language, you should start with literature like this. It will not be too hard for you if you are not a complete beginner, and you will gain an understanding what shapes the research paper understanding of write a high school me a German child. Example Four: Living With Grandparents. Do you live with your grandparents? Then check out this example if it suits you: Ich wohne bei meinen Gro?eltern, da meine Eltern gestorben sind, als ich noch ein Baby war. Wir wohnen in einem gro?en Haus, und ich habe ein riesiges Zimmer mit meinem eigenen Balkon. Im Sommer mache ich dort immer meine Hausaufgaben.
Meine Gro?eltern sind ganz lieb zu mir. Mein Opa hilft mir immer, mein Fahrrad zu reparieren und meine Oma ladt meine Freunde oft zum Essen ein. Ich habe auch noch einen Onkel, der manchmal am Wochenende vorbeikommt und Architekt ist. Momentan arbeitet er jedoch in Japan fur drei Monate. Wir passen solange auf seinen Hund auf, und er hat mir versprochen, mir eine Uberraschung aus Japan mitzubringen. Eine Frau hat mein Onkel nicht. Research Paper. Meine Oma sagt immer, er sei mit seiner Arbeit verheiratet. Dann gibt es noch Tante Miriam, die eigentlich keine richtige Tante ist, sondern die beste Freundin meiner Oma. Die beiden kennen sich aber schon so lange, dass sie inzwischen auch zur Familie gehort.
Tante Miriam hat viele Enkelkinder und manchmal treffen wir uns alle zusammen im Park. Dann machen wir ein gro?es Picknick und haben ganz viel Spa?. And here is what the text is about (Remember, this isn't a 1-to-1 translation!): I live with my grandparents because my parents died when I was a baby. We live in a big house, and brecht centenary essays, I have a huge room with my own balcony. In the summertime, I do my homework there. My grandparents are very nice to me. Page Research. My grandpa always helps me repair my bike, and my grandma often invites my friends for dinner. Argument. I also have an reference research paper, uncle who comes around for the weekend from time to time, and he is an architect.
At the moment, he is working in essay history in the classroom Japan for three months, and reference page in a research paper, we are looking after his dog. But he promised me to bring a surprise back from i do a literature review paper Japan. My uncle has no wife. My grandma always says he is married to his job. Then there is aunt Miriam who is not a real aunt actually but the best friend of my grandma. Since they have known each other for such a long time, she became a member of our family. Aunt Miriam has lots of research grandchildren, and sometimes we all meet in the park. Then we have a great picnic and much fun!
My Audio Version of the Essay Living with Grandparents These Are the Keywords of All the of inclusion in the classroom German Essays Above. Writing about you school is totally easy - with the in a paper help of essay in the classroom this hub. Learn how to write about positives and reference research paper, negatives at centenary your school in page in a splendid German! FREE German essay on drugs - Drogen. In part 9 of a high school essay my series of German essays we talk about page research drug abuse, consequences and what your teacher wants you to write in your essay. Also covering cigarettes and alcohol. Free German Essay on Healthy Lifestyle: Gesunder Lebenstil.
by bongawonga 7. Free German Essay on in the classroom My Holidays: Meine Ferien. by bongawonga 8. Free German Essay on Hobbies for reference page in a research, GCSEHigh School. by bongawonga 9. Free German Essays on Daily Routines: Mein Tagesablauf. by bongawonga 13. Filipino Words and Expressions of how do review for a research paper Love. by Kymberly Fergusson 12. Spanish Lesson Fifty-Five: Doing Math in Spanish. by A.E.
Williams 0. Thank you so very much Ms. Bongawonga. The efforts made by you are really appreciated. aishwarya raghuvanshi 10 months ago. Thnku very much sir. Page Paper. But plz send me article about university. Thanks a lot.I found ir really useful:) bongawonga 17 months ago from UK. Thank you Keziah and Nieshang! xx.
Thank you for the materials.they are good for reading and helping me in leaning German language. Hi,I need help in education in our life writing an essay about meine schule. Keziah Betty 2 years ago. Thank you SO MUCH for this serie of little essays in reference page research german. How Do Review For A Research. It is reference paper very helpful for school essay, me: it helps me to prepare better my german lessons. I learn german with a german woman which had a problem to create or find a simple text to teach me the reference in a research paper german basics and I couldn t find anything simple and helpful. Finally I found your blog here so thank you one more time.
You ve done a really really goood work. ) Sie haben mir geholfen .tousandmal danke. Really helpful, thanks for this, write more please. I'm gonna present this essay as it is in essays my exam. Thank you man .. u saved me. bongawonga 2 years ago from UK. Thank you neha kolhe! Which country are you from? thank you , was really helpful.
Please can you write about arguments in the family? sehr schön gemacht :) Sarthak Batham 3 years ago. it was awesome.i used your examples as inspiration.danke. bongawonga 4 years ago from UK. Thank you ratnaveera for your lovely comment! My next hub will be about holidays and I promise to write about health issues after that. I am glad to page help :)
ratnaveera 4 years ago from Cumbum. All the above four essays are simply superb! I hope this will help me a lot to 3rd grade book report web improve my German writing. Research Paper. Thank you so much for adding English translation and brecht essays, meaning for research, important keywords. A Literature Review. I am also interested on health and travel essays.
If you write articles on those topics, it would be really helpful for research paper, me. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and centenary essays, company names shown may be trademarks of reference page their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of how do i do research HubPages, Inc. Page In A Research. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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