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Michael C. Vanier: computer programming skills resume. Most of my thesis work involved building realistic computer simulations of the brain (specifically the mammalian olfactory cortex). In the process of doing this work, I discovered that I really liked programming and I've ended up spending a lot of time learning new programming languages and programming tools just for fun. Jcdc Creative 2012. I have a particular fondness for edexcel unusual programming languages and new programming paradigms, which I guess is why I'm making a living teaching programming now ;-) I've also periodically done part-time jobs to jcdc writing 2012 make extra money, all of which have been programming-related. I describe my computer skills and the jobs I've worked on below. NOTE: Some parts of this document are obsolete and need an essay, overhaul.
What this means in practice is that I actually know and have worked on more stuff than is in this document, though I try to keep it reasonably up to date. Jcdc Competition. The HTML also needs to be cleaned up. Large programming projects I've worked on. Personal Spider, Inc. Write Thesis Informative. During the dot-com boom, I was one of the core programmers in an internet startup company called Personal Spider Inc. (PSI). I'm was also one of the company founders, was on jcdc, the board of directors, and was the chief science officer. I've done a limited amount of write good thesis essay, management of jcdc competition, other programmers as well. Due to NDAs, I can't disclose the gcse mathematics coursework, details of the work I did with PSI, but in general it involves building internet tools for medium-sized web sites.
There was a considerable amount of pattern-recognition and language processing work involved as well, which nicely leveraged a lot of the jcdc 2012, skills I've learned in the course of my work at Caltech. The code was entirely in Python. This company failed to secure adequate funding and is now defunct. Tspice and Wedit I worked part-time for 18 months at Tanner Research Inc. as a programmer. On A Journey. While there I worked on several projects, using a combination of C, C++ and Python as programming languages. All of these involved developing tools for simulating VLSI circuits. Creative Competition 2012. Most of essays on a hero's journey, my work was on Unix platforms, mainly Sun Solaris.
The projects included: Porting two graphically-oriented software packages from Windows to Unix. One package was a circuit-simulation package (Tspice), while the other was a graphical display package for visualizing the outputs of the jcdc creative, Tspice program (Wedit). Enhancing the Tspice circuit simulation program so it could work over a network. This was Unix-specific.
Adding capabilities to the Tspice circuit simulation program; specifically, I modified the program to: support dependent voltage and current sources (VCCS, VCVS, CCCS, CCVS) whose branch characteristic equations were polynomials in the dependent source values. handle impact ionization parameters in a broad class of transistor models. Working on adding algorithms to essay on the shawshank redemption the Tspice simulation package to make it work on jcdc writing competition, parallel computers. Gambit I worked for how to application me several months with Richard McKelvey in the Department of jcdc competition, Humanities and Social Sciences at Caltech. I'm did a variety of programming jobs involving the essay me, Gambit game-theory simulator, which is written in jcdc writing 2012, C++. Originally, I was working on building a GUI record/playback system. I built a prototype, but the project money ran out after that. Essays Journey. I also ported the gambit GUI to use the wxxt-1.67 implementation of wxWindows for Unix using Xt widgets only (i.e. which doesn't require Motif), and set up a CVS code archive. A database-backed web site This was a prototype for a commercial web site that involved collecting form data from individuals, storing the results in a database, computing values based on those results, and returning these results to the user. Competition. In other words, it was like every other commercial web site on the planet. I used Python, MySQL, PHP, and apache to essays hero's build the jcdc competition 2012, site. Interestingly, the person I worked for on mathematics coursework, this project turned out to creative 2012 be dishonest, and he still owes me over $1000 for the work I did for him.
GNU shogi This is my hobby project. Churchs Thesis. GNU shogi is jcdc writing competition 2012 a program that plays shogi (Japanese chess), and it's part of the GNU project. The program is described in essay on the shawshank redemption, great detail in the link above. C++ I've worked on jcdc competition, a couple of medium-to-large projects in essays on a hero's, C++ (the Wedit program and the Gambit game-theory simulator), mostly on maintaining, porting, and/or extending previously-existing projects. I've also written some neural network simulations in C++. I believe that C++ is better for large projects than C due to its object-oriented features. Jcdc Creative Writing Competition. It's also probably the fastest OO language.
However, it can be difficult to use effectively because of its great complexity. Essays On A Hero's. And, as mentioned for C, the jcdc creative writing, lack of garbage collection discourages you from gcse coursework, using many kinds of data structures, although C++ is at least far superior to C in creative writing competition, this regard because of destructors. In addition, there are freely-available conservative garbage collectors for informative essay C++ such as the jcdc creative writing competition, Boehm-Demers GC which could in theory make C++ programming much more pleasant (I say in theory because I've never done it in C++, although I have done it in C). One thing I will say about edexcel gcse, C++ is that, unlike Perl, where the jcdc writing competition 2012, language seems arbitrarily complex for no good reason, the good thesis statement informative, complexity in C++ is an accurate reflection of the kinds of things that are typically done in the language. Whether a simpler language with equivalent power could be created is an interesting research problem; I find it revealing that C++ is essentially the creative 2012, only language in its design space (object-oriented languages that fully support low-level programming). Modula-3 had some of C++'s low-level features but never caught on redemption, (and had much weaker OO support). Java The largest Java program I've written was a prototype neural simulator in Java (as an exploration of the creative writing 2012, language as a possible future implementation language for GENESIS). This came to about 7000 lines of code. Java is essays hero's nicer in most ways than C++. It's safer, cleaner, and writing competition has very few weird features. Having automatic garbage collection is also a huge win from the programmer's standpoint.
They left out some features of C++ I liked (templates and operator overloading) but there are compilers that support those features too (and the Java standard has already generics, which solve many of the same problems that templates solved, albeit in a completely different way). Write School Me. The main problem with Java is speed: it's about 10-20 times slower than C when run byte-coded, and maybe 1.5-3 times slower when using a JIT (just-in-time compiler). This makes it much less attractive to people like me who do simulations, where you can never have enough speed. Jcdc Creative Writing Competition. However, it is extremely attractive when portability is more important than speed. The Java environment is on the also quite nice, and eliminates most of the hassle from doing e.g. portable graphics or network programming. Writing Competition 2012. One thing I dislike about Java is its verbosity; code in Java is often much longer than equivalent code written in other languages because of the plethora of mandatory declarations. Python Python is my scripting language of choice. I've written innumerable little data-munging scripts in Python (several thousand lines of code). Write Good Statement. I've also made a version of the GENESIS neural simulator that used Python as its extension language instead of the standard GENESIS script language. I built a networked version of the Tspice circuit simulation program using Python to handle the networking connections between the graphical interface and the computing engine. The database-backed web site I worked on had Python code which generated thousands of lines of PHP code (!).
The Personal Spider project is written entirely in Python. Jcdc Writing Competition. In addition, these web pages are created from template files written in Python. I like Python because it can do everything Perl does, but it's much cleaner in design, is object-oriented, and the code is more readable than in any other computer language I know of. It's also a great extension/embedding language for large software packages. Check out the Python home page for more details.
I worked on a fairly large prototype of a commercial web site involving putting a database up on a web site where PHP was the server-side scripting language. It came to about 10,000 lines of PHP code, of which about edexcel mathematics, half were automatically generated (by Python scripts that I wrote :-)). Server-side scripting languages are a great idea and are essential for this kind of work. However, PHP is writing sucks big time as a computer language; in fact, I never want to use it again as long as I live. The way arrays are implemented is particularly hilarious. (Maybe the churchs thesis, language has improved now; I don't know.) If I do this kind of jcdc writing competition 2012, work again I'll look into alternatives such as Ruby on Rails or one of the essays hero's journey, Python web frameworks, or else write my own web framework. Lisp and Scheme I've done bits and pieces of Lisp and competition Scheme programming (Scheme is how to write a high school a dialect of jcdc writing competition, Lisp) but no very large projects.
I did write a formatter for the C language in Emacs lisp which is about 400 lines long in churchs thesis, its current version. Jcdc Competition. I've written a prototype implementation of a computer language in Scheme, but I switched to Ocaml for the final implementation. I've read several books on Lisp and Scheme (e.g. Abelson and Sussman's Structure and of public property essay Interpretation of Computer Programs and Graham's ANSI Common Lisp and On Lisp) and subscribe or have subscribed to several mailing lists for various implementations of Scheme. Finally, I teach Scheme as part of the CS 1 course at Caltech. I like Lisp and Scheme a lot, because they're among the jcdc, most flexible, powerful and extensible computer languages ever invented (not surprising, considering that they're based on lambda calculus). Lisp is usually thought of vandalism of public property, as an jcdc writing, artificial intelligence (AI) language but it's actually general-purpose; it's just that other languages aren't flexible enough for AI, so Lisp is used in that domain by default.
Lisp has a prefix syntax which uses lots of parentheses that many people find ugly and hard to understand, but I've found that you get used to it quickly (and I actually prefer it because it's so unambiguous). Also, most people think Lisp is slow, but it's not: several Common Lisp systems have compilers that can produce code which is almost as fast as C ( e.g. Edexcel Mathematics. within a factor of 2). A good recent example of this is Steel Bank Common Lisp. The reason Lisp and Scheme are important is that they're virtually the only computer languages that combine the following: full support for both imperative and functional programming (OK, Ocaml also gives you this, but Lisp is more general). 2012. macros, which allow you to write code that writes code. These are not like macros in C; Lisp macros operate on good statement essay, the syntactic structure of the code, not just on writing 2012, the string representation of code. Macros are one of the key elements that make it possible to implement support for new programming paradigms ( e.g. Essay. object-oriented programming, logic programming) within the language itself. Read Paul Graham's book On Lisp (currently out of print, but downloadable for free) for much more on jcdc creative competition 2012, macros.
I used to be keen on hero's journey, Guile, a dialect of Scheme designed to be a scripting language, but that project has had a number of problems, the most serious of which is a chronic lack of decent documentation. Right now I advocate mzscheme, the Scheme implementation for the Dr. Jcdc Writing Competition 2012. Scheme project. Mzscheme is good thesis informative a beautifully-written version of Scheme which works well as an extension language. Jcdc Creative Competition 2012. In addition, it has great documentation and on a hero's its developers include some of the foremost names in the Scheme world.
I encourage everyone who is really a serious programmer and who needs a scripting and/or extension language to look at mzscheme. Realistically, however, I know that most programmers are incredibly conservative and will never be able to jcdc writing get past Scheme's somewhat odd syntax. Objective CAML (Ocaml) and Standard ML These languages have strong static polymorphic type systems and mainly support functional programming with strict evaluation, although they also support imperative programming. If you understood that last statement, you probably spend WAY too much time programming :-) These languages are very interesting for serious programmers, and of public property are very pleasant to program in. The largest project I've done in Ocaml so far is an implementation of a dynamically-typed functional programming language (which I also designed). This language is competition 2012 basically a cross between Forth and Scheme; the Ocaml code came to about 4500 lines of churchs thesis, code, which is pretty small for a full language implementation. Ocaml, in particular, is so great that it has become one of creative competition 2012, my languages of choice for new projects. Just look at what it gives you: full support for essay imperative, functional, and creative competition object-oriented programming; amazingly fast execution (often beats C++ on speed tests); strong static polymorphic type-checking (this catches a HUGE number of write thesis, bugs at compile time); a very powerful type system, which lets you describe the program structurally in terms of its types so that if it passes the competition 2012, type checker it is almost correct by construction; type inference, so you usually don't have to declare types; a very efficient generational garbage collector; portable bytecode compilation or fast native-code compilation; a large standard library; a large user base; a powerful module system with functors and separate compilation; language customization using camlp4 (caml pretty-printer and preprocessor); a foreign function interface to churchs thesis C code; and lots more ;-) Ocaml only has two problems.
First, its syntax is idiosyncratic and somewhat grungy, especially for imperative programming. The syntax is also too free-form for my taste (over 100 shift-reduce conflicts in jcdc 2012, the grammar). Statement. The other (much more serious) problem is that ocaml totally spoils you; after you get over the (admittedly large) learning curve, programming in C or C++ feels like Chinese water torture and programming in Java or Python feels like playing with children's blocks. On the positive side, you'll probably program five times as fast and spend 1/5 the creative competition 2012, time debugging as you would in those languages. Ocaml is good thesis not a perfect programming language but it's so far ahead of the nearest competitor that it's just incredible.
Incidentally, the CAML in writing, ocaml stands for Categorical Abstract Machine Language; I hope that clears that up ;-) Haskell Ah, Haskell. how do I love thee? Let me count the edexcel gcse coursework, ways. ;-) Haskell is creative competition my new favorite language, even though I recognize that it isn't yet suitable for many tasks. Gcse Mathematics Coursework. It's the most beautiful computer language I've ever used. It is a pure functional language with lazy evaluation, type classes, and uses monads (an advanced concept that comes from category theory) to handle input/output, state transitions, and jcdc creative writing competition 2012 much more in on the shawshank, a purely functional setting. Well-written Haskell code is so concise and elegant it will make you cry. If C code is creative writing one step up from assembly language, good Haskell code is write school application one step down from jcdc creative writing competition 2012, poetry, or from churchs thesis, a beautiful mathematical theorem. And one of the things I like most about it is that it was two of my students (Brandon Moore and Aaron Plattner) who were responsible for turning me on to Haskell (being a teacher has its perks). Haskell also has an incredibly rich and deep literature, a very active user base consisting of writing 2012, some of the smartest programmers in the world, and is just a joy to school application essay me use.
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It has an unusual stack-based postfix syntax that is thesis essay not conducive to writing readable code. It's a lot of fun to jcdc creative writing play with, because you can extend any part of the how to school application me, language (the implementation is completely exposed, for better or for worse), and most of the language is written in itself. It's also fast for an interpreted language. However, it's too slow for serious simulation work and jcdc writing competition too difficult to use for scripting, so I don't use it anymore, except when I get bored :-) To me, Forth is a fascinating example of a language that is churchs thesis too simple for its own good i.e. it violates Einstein's dictum of make everything as simple as possible, but no simpler. In Forth's case, the jcdc creative writing competition 2012, excessive simplicity of the parser means that simple grouping operations are unreasonably difficult (unlike in Lisp/Scheme, where the parentheses take care of grouping). I believe there is room for higher-level stack-based languages inspired by Forth and Lisp, and I even implemented one ;-) That project is currently languishing in the I'll-get-back-to-it-when-I-get-bored category. GENESIS neural simulation system The GENESIS neural simulation system forms a large part of on a journey, my thesis work. Creative 2012. GENESIS includes a simple script language of its own called SLI (which means, imaginatively enough, Script Language Interpreter).
SLI is an atrocious scripting language; it would take pages to essays on a journey describe how awful it is. However, one virtue of GENESIS as a whole is that you can add new data types and commands to the language fairly easily. Matlab Matlab is the competition 2012, well-known data-analysis and numerical computation program. I've used Matlab for lots of a high application essay, small data-analysis jobs and (mainly) for graphics. I dislike the Matlab language, which is very poorly designed, but Matlab's numerical routines are very useful and the graphics that Matlab produces are excellent. Mathematica I use Mathematica whenever I have a really gnarly algebra or calculus problem to jcdc writing competition 2012 deal with. I like it; it's a lot like Lisp with a nicer interface (although the Mathematica people don't give credit where it's due e.g. to the MacSyma program which predated it). How To Essay. However, I don't like proprietary software, so I don't use it much. I'd love to see an jcdc creative writing 2012, open-source program of write application essay me, comparable abilities. Unix shells: sh, csh, zsh I've written loads of shell scripts in jcdc creative writing, sh, csh, and zsh (usually sh).
I nearly always switch to Python when the how to application essay, job gets sufficiently big (which usually means over twenty lines long), but shell scripts are great for competition gluing other programs together. Much of the data analysis work I've done has involved a combination of shell scripts, Python scripts, and C programs, usually strung together in a long pipeline. make Make is the program used to coordinate a complex series of commands when compiling a program. It took me a while to realize that make is a programming language in its own right, albeit one very different from the ones I'm used to; it's more like a rule-based AI language such as Prolog. The GENESIS Makefiles are pretty nasty and I've hacked on them extensively. I've also worked on lots of Makefiles for other projects I've been involved in. I use GNU make exclusively; it has some very useful extensions over standard makes.
Perl Perl is a scripting language which combines the power of a lot of Unix tools into one language ( e.g. sh, sed, awk, and some of C). I've written many small throwaway scripts in Perl. The largest thing I did in Perl was a series of scripts to convert files representing neural morphologies into files representing simpler morphologies that are roughly equivalent. This is an churchs thesis, essential part of my thesis work, and was about 2500 line of jcdc writing 2012, Perl code. Perl is quite fast for a scripting language, and is good for how to write school text and file manipulation, but it's very complex and jcdc creative competition I loathe its weird context dependencies and its syntax, which is full of funny magic characters and assorted bogosities too numerous to name here. I also hate the churchs thesis, fact that there are way too many ways of doing exactly the same thing (or much worse, ALMOST the jcdc, same thing but not quite). I find that most of the complexity in Perl is totally unnecessary and is mainly the result of bad design choices made early on, in contrast to Python, which has equivalent power but is much easier to learn and use.
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Eiffel also has some issues involving its type system which requires programs to do whole-program analysis at link time to make sure a program is valid; this makes the language much less attractive in the internet world where dynamic loading of code libraries is a normal part of life. Smalltalk SmallTalk was one of the earliest object-oriented languages (not the first, though: Simula was the first). It has not really caught on, probably because its syntax is quite odd, but it has had a major influence on newer languages like Java and jcdc writing 2012 Python. There is a recent reimplementation called Squeak which is really wonderful, is free software, and is attracting a lot of attention; if you're interested in churchs thesis, Smalltalk, you should start there. Although Smalltalk's syntax is odd, it's very consistent, and jcdc writing this makes Smalltalk extremely easy to learn; you could summarize the entire language in one page. That makes sense, since it was originally designed to be a language that children could use. Smalltalk has also been a heavy influence on journey, other languages, notably the scripting language Ruby. All computer language designers should study Smalltalk carefully; there is jcdc much to how to write a high school application learn from it. Personally, studying Smalltalk gave me a big aha! moment: I never really understood the essence of jcdc competition, object-oriented programming until I learned Smalltalk.
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It's also proprietary, although free versions are available. Write A High. In the right hands, I think J could be a pretty cool data-analysis language. Modula-3 Modula-3 is another object-oriented language descended from Pascal. It's no longer used much, but it was a major influence on creative 2012, Java and Python, so its genes live on :-) To me, one of its coolest features is the notion of an unsafe module that can perform low-level tasks usually done using C or C++. This gives it much of the power of those languages, but unlike them, Modula-3 is safe by default. The C# language adopted this feature. Prolog Prolog is basically an edexcel mathematics, AI language which operates by defining facts and rules for deriving new facts from writing 2012, old ones.
I've read one book on Prolog but haven't done any real programming in it. It looks fascinating, though: it's a whole new paradigm of programming. m4 macro language I used this for setting up the churchs thesis, automatic configuration for jcdc creative writing my hobby project (GNU shogi). It only required about a couple of hundred lines of m4 code, which is essay shawshank redemption just as well; it's pretty nasty. sed, awk These are Unix text-processing mini-languages. I've used them as part of shell scripts, but don't claim to be an expert in either. Anything awk can do can usually be done better by Python or Perl anyway. Programming languages I've written or worked on.
The GENESIS neural simulator I worked with for my Ph.D. thesis included a home-brew script language imaginatively called SLI (for script language interpreter). I hacked on it a bit, but it was such a poorly designed piece of crap that I lost interest quickly. It served as a useful illustration of how not to design a language. I wrote an interesting scripting language called Tap (named after the competition, fake rock band Spinal Tap). I designed it myself and wrote it entirely from scratch in ocaml. How To A High Me. The idea behind Tap was to create a hybrid of Forth and Scheme. It would have a postfix syntax like Forth (which means it has a lexer but no real parser; every token is creative competition executed immediately), but would also be a full-fledged functional language like Scheme, with a full environment model, first class functions, yadda yadda. I was interested to edexcel gcse coursework see if merging the Forth approach to programming with the Scheme approach would be interesting. 2012. And, in fact, it was interesting. Of Public Property. Here is some sample Tap code: I learned a lot from working on Tap, even though I don't work on it or use the language any more.
I found that I had to fight the tendency to make the language overly complex, because ocaml made it so easy to jcdc creative writing competition make big changes (even stupid ones). Even so, I'm not happy with the result -- for one thing, the internals are too complex for my taste. I also tried too hard to make it Lisp-like, for instance by churchs thesis, trying to support things like syntactic macros which don't fit in nicely with a postfix model of computation. Creative 2012. Similarly, I tried too hard to make the base syntax user-modifiable. In contrast, I neglected vitally important things like modules which do fit in to the model and are essential for any real programming language IMO. Also, using ocaml as the vandalism property essay, implementation language was a mixed blessing. It certainly improved my skill with the language, it gives you garbage collection for jcdc competition free, and it's generally a joy to essay on the shawshank work with, but it's too restrictive in some ways. Creative Writing Competition. For instance, you can't have native-code shared libraries, which is a huge lose for a scripting language.
Perhaps the biggest mistake I made with Tap is that I didn't have an application area defined before I started working on it. It's usually a good idea to have a specific application or set of journey, applications to guide the creative writing, language design. Picoforth is write thesis essay a Forth dialect (much more so than Tap, which was merely inspired by Forth). It preserves the things I liked about Forth (extreme interactivity, easy factoring, easy access to data representations) while getting rid of the many things I hated about it. Its goal was to be a scripting language for creative writing 2012 applications or libraries written in write thesis statement informative, C (much like most scripting languages) and it's was written in C. It features conservative garbage collection, a much richer data model than Forth (which isn't saying much), and a better module (vocabulary) model. The implementation is basically an indirect-threaded interpreter like Forth. One of these days, though, I really have to sit down and write a Forth implementation from scratch in assembly language, if only to jcdc creative 2012 teach myself assembly language. That's how Chuck Moore did it originally, and write if it's good enough for Chuck. BogoScheme started as a tiny Scheme interpreter I wrote in a few hours in ocaml for creative writing an ocaml course I teach. There was nothing particularly interesting about the original version, aside from the fact that it was a Turing-complete Scheme interpreter in about 700 lines of code, with first-class functions and correct lexical scoping.
The bogo- prefix doesn't mean that the language is broken; it just means that it (currently) lacks huge numbers of features that full-fledged Scheme interpreters have. Also, I liked the idea that source code files would have names ending in .bs . Truth in advertising! Of course, no language ever stays small for long, and churchs thesis since I wrote BogoScheme I've been systematically expanding it, with the goal of making a full R6RS-compliant Scheme implementation (the R6RS standard isn't finalized yet, but a draft is available at http://www.r6rs.org ). I also want to experiment with writing a Scheme compiler for the language, something I've been interested in creative competition, ever since I read Abelson and Sussman's Structure and essays hero's Interpretation of Computer Programs. And, of course, it's really fun. My longer-term goal is to use BogoScheme as a vehicle for creative writing 2012 web programming. I have technical reasons for believing that Scheme would be a superb language for web programming, and I'd like to try it out. Of course, I could use a pre-existing Scheme implementation, but that wouldn't be nearly as much fun. Other programming projects of on the, mine. mosh is a Unix shell I've written in Ocaml. It's very primitive at the moment, but I want to expand it until I can ditch bash and zsh entirely (at least, for interactive use).
The goal of jcdc creative 2012, mosh is to be a superb interactive shell, not a shell scripting language. I don't care much about essay, shell scripting, because my shell scripts are never long (if they get longer than about twenty lines, I switch to a real scripting language like python instead). However, I do care a lot about comfortable interaction with a shell, and I want to use mosh to experiment with new features while simultaneously avoiding the gigantic amount of cruft that plagues zsh . Admittedly, this isn't an Earth-shaking project; it's mostly for fun and learning. The name mosh stands for jcdc 2012 M ike's O caml SH ell. Apache is the edexcel mathematics, most-used web server in the world, and is totally open-source.
I've compiled and set up an jcdc competition 2012, Apache server for my database-backed web site project. I set up the server to hero's support PHP and MySQL as well, which required a little cleverness (but not much). I like Apache; it seems to be robust and effective. TeX/LaTeX The document-processing systems. I use these to typeset all my scientific papers. I hate LaTeX, but I don't have a better alternative.
I especially hate the TeX language that is at the heart of LaTeX. Don Knuth may be a genius in creative writing competition 2012, the field of essay on the, computer algorithms, but that doesn't make him a genius in computer language design. Ugh. CORBA I've played around with CORBA a bit, mainly using a Python ORB called Fnorb. I was once excited about the jcdc competition 2012, potential of CORBA for making network programming easier and for making it easy to integrate modules written in different languages, but now I've lost interest. CORBA is too big, too bulky, and has too much overhead for my tastes. Hero's Journey. Also, it has a design-by-committee feel to it.
CVS and Subversion. I have used CVS (Concurrent Version System) to jcdc writing competition manage source code revisions for several projects. It's not perfect, but it gets the churchs thesis, job done. I've also set up CVS archives for the Gambit project and for other projects. Then I switched to Subversion, which I preferred, but not by much.
Now I use Darcs (written in Haskell, by the way). Lex, Yacc and friends. Lex and Yacc (or their GNU equivalents, flex and bison) are, respectively, lexer and parser generators. They enable you to write parsers for new programming languages fairly easily, by stating the writing 2012, parsing rules. I've done some work on Yacc for the Tspice project, and essay on the shawshank I used lex extensively for my cellreader library in GENESIS. I also know the Ocaml equivalents, ocamllex and creative 2012 ocamlyacc , quite well. Emacs and gcse mathematics Vim Emacs and Vim are two great programmer's text editors. I used Emacs exclusively for years until I finally discovered Vim, and I haven't used Emacs since.
Vim's modal editing really saves time. SWIG SWIG (Simplified Wrapper and Interface Generator) is a nifty tool that makes it very easy to jcdc writing competition build scripting interfaces to C or C++ code. I used it to build a version of churchs thesis, GENESIS that used Python as its scripting language. autoconf autoconf is another cool tool that I used to automate the configuration process for creative writing 2012 my hobby project (GNU shogi). If you've ever had to hack through a dozen Makefiles to make a program compile on a different version of Unix than the one it was written on, then you can appreciate what autoconf does.
With autoconf, you just have to do configure; make; make install and you're (usually) done.
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TOEFL Prep Online Guides and jcdc creative writing 2012, Tips. Writing is the last section you’ll complete on the TOEFL. You’re so close to finishing, yet you still have two essays to write before you can celebrate completing the exam. In order to finish the test on a high note, you’ll need to be prepared for this section. In this guide, we explain the ins and outs of the Writing section and the materials you need to hero's do well. We then go over all the best TOEFL Writing practice resources available , including free and official practice Writing topics. We’ll end with final tips to keep in mind in order to ace the TOEFL Writing section. The TOEFL Writing section is 50 minutes long (broken into jcdc creative competition 2012 two parts) and contains two tasks: Integrated Writing and Independent Writing. Shawshank Redemption. You’ll type both essays on writing competition 2012, the computer. The Integrated Writing task requires you to use listening, reading, and edexcel gcse, writing skills. Jcdc 2012. For this task, you will have three minutes to read a short passage, then you will listen to write good thesis statement a short (approximately two-minute long) audio clip of a speaker discussing the jcdc creative writing competition, same topic the written passage covers.
You will have 20 minutes to plan and write a response that references both of these sources. You won’t discuss your own opinion. For the Independent Writing task, you’ll receive a question on a particular topic or issue. You’ll have 30 minutes to plan and essays hero's journey, write a response to that topic that explains your opinion on jcdc creative writing 2012, it. You’ll need to give reasons that support your decision.
Each essay will receive a score from 0-5. Essays On A Journey. The sum will then be scaled to a score from 0-30, which is jcdc writing 2012 your official Writing score. The Writing section makes up 25% of write a high school, your total TOEFL score (from 0-120). By the way: we have created the world's best online TOEFL course that automatically identifies and improves your weaknesses on jcdc 2012, the TOEFL. Shawshank Redemption. Want to creative competition 2012 get personal feedback on your Speaking? Confused about gcse mathematics, Reading? PrepScholar guides you, step by step to writing 2012 conquer TOEFL. I want to be clear - you don't NEED a TOEFL course to get a great TOEFL score. But we believe PrepScholar is the thesis statement, world's best TOEFL course right now , especially if you are nervous about the TOEFL and have struggled to increase your score and don't know how to improve anymore. What You’ll Need to writing Be Prepared for the TOEFL Writing Section.
As you likely expect, you’ll spend most of edexcel mathematics coursework, your time on the TOEFL Writing section, well, writing. Jcdc Writing 2012. However, you’ll also need to have solid reading and listening skills for how to write me the Integrated task. Since the jcdc writing competition, Writing section requires multiple skills, you’ll need multiple study tools in order to gcse coursework be completely prepared. Some of the most important things you’ll need to creative competition 2012 prepare for TOEFL Writing include: Complete practice Writing sections Individual practice questions or TOEFL Writing topics Opportunities to practice your writing skills Opportunities to practice your listening skills. In the next section, we’ll go over the best TOEFL Writing practice tests and questions. The Best TOEFL Writing Practice Materials. This section contains links to the top practice materials to use while preparing for vandalism TOEFL Writing.
What makes a practice material the jcdc creative writing, best? First, the write, practice questions must be similar in content and format to the real TOEFL Writing section to give you the jcdc creative writing competition, best preparation for the real exam. Second, it’s a major plus if the practice questions come with answer explanations that help you understand how to answer an essay prompt well. Finally, prep materials that include useful tips and churchs thesis, strategies for answering Writing questions are useful because they give you advice on how to raise your score on jcdc writing competition 2012, this section. Official resources are the best to use since you can be confident they’ll be very similar to the real TOEFL Writing section. The topics will be much more realistic in format and on the shawshank redemption, content. Below are all the jcdc creative, official TOEFL Writing practice materials available, both free and paid resources.
ETS doesn’t provide just Writing questions, so each of good thesis statement informative essay, these resources also have practice resources for the other sections of the TOEFL. Be sure to include at least some of these materials in your studying. The next section has more tips on jcdc competition, how to vandalism of public property essay make the jcdc writing competition, most of official practice resources. The TOEFL iBT Sampler is a program you can download with official practice questions, and it’s a great free and official resource to use. In addition to other TOEFL sections, it includes a complete TOEFL iBT Writing practice section (two tasks). Sample answers for both tasks are included so you can get an idea of what a good essay looks like. On A Journey. Unfortunately, the Sampler only works with Windows; you can’t download it with a Mac. This PDF is another free and official resource. In addition to other question types, it includes two Writing tasks: one TOEFL Integrated Writing practice question and one Independent Writing practice question. Each sample TOEFL Writing topic is followed by a sample essay as well as an in-depth score explanation, which is a great tool for studiers.
The Quick Prep contains four different volumes, each of which contains one or two Writing prompts. Jcdc Creative Competition 2012. The first volume is the best for TOEFL iBT Writing practice, since it contains two tasks (the others each only contain one) and also has an in-depth explanation of what your essays should include. The other three volumes only contain the essay rubrics without any advice on how to answer the specific essay prompt given. TPO tests are retired TOEFL exams now offered for test prep. They give the closest experience to the real TOEFL, and, because of that, they aren’t cheap.
You’ll have to pay $45 for each complete TOEFL you buy (you can’t just buy individual TOEFL iBT Writing practice sections). We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at getting your target TOEFL score. Download it for application free now: Your exam will be automatically graded after you finish it, although I was not particularly impressed with how the competition 2012, Writing section was graded when I took it. For the actual TOEFL, two human graders and a computer program review your essays and gcse coursework, assign grades to each one. For this exam, a computer grades your Writing section within less than a minute of you completing the exam, and there is no explanation of how that grade was determined. This is a useful resource, but if you don’t want to spend that much money on creative writing competition 2012, a practice test, it’s completely possible to do well just using the above practice resources. There are several official TOEFL prep books for sale by edexcel coursework ETS.
The Official Guide to the TOEFL Test , in addition to explaining the jcdc creative writing 2012, types of how to write essay me, questions on the test, contains numerous practice questions and creative writing, three full-length exams. This is also the only official prep book that includes sample essays of varying scores along with scoring explanations, which can be a big help if you’re trying to guess what score your essays would get. There’s also the Official TOEFL iBT Tests Volumes 1 and 2. On A Hero's. Each of these books contains five unique practice tests, available on paper and the computer. However, no sample responses are given for Writing questions, which make them a less useful resource compared to creative 2012 The Official Guide to the TOEFL Test. You have to be more careful when using unofficial prep resources since not all of essay shawshank, them are reliable. Some are high-quality and very similar to the TOEFL, others are not. For the jcdc creative, Writing section in particular, because it’s so easy to make up essay prompts, there are many sites that claim to how to write me offer TOEFL Writing practice when their practice questions are actually low-quality.
Below are some of the jcdc creative writing 2012, top unofficial prep resources out there. Redemption. All of them (except the prep books, if you buy them) are free. This site contains one TOEFL Integrated Writing practice task and five Independent Writing practice tasks. All six TOEFL Writing topics are similar to the real test, and the Integrated task as well as one of the Independent tasks have sample responses you can compare your answers to. At the bottom of the web page is a checklist of things your essays should include to creative 2012 help give you a guideline of what you should be aiming for when you write. Magoosh offers one TOEFL Integrated Writing practice task.
That’s not a lot of practice, but it is a high-quality question that includes a sample response. Magoosh also offers three complete TOEFLs, so you can use those Writing questions as well. This site has a huge number (several hundred) of Independent Writing tasks, separated into five different categories depending on question type. Some of the questions are more simplistic than you’ll see on the real TOEFL , and there’s no scoring information or sample responses, but there are a good source if you need more TOEFL Writing topics to how to write application essay write about. This site contains 155 Independent Writing tasks. Jcdc. Like Good Luck TOEFL, some of these TOEFL Writing topics are easier than you’ll find on the TOEFL, and there are no sample responses included, but they do give you the essays on a, opportunity to practice writing. Prep books, even unofficial ones, often are a great resource for writing practice questions.
Most books include sample Writing questions, along with scoring explanations , and then contain one or more complete practice TOEFLs at on the shawshank, the end of the jcdc writing competition 2012, book. You can learn all about the best TOEFL prep books by reading our guide. Want to improve your TOEFL score by 15 points? We have the world's leading TOEFL course. Built by world-class instructors from Harvard and MIT, the program combines machine learning and human feedback to identify the fastest way to hit your target TOEFL score.
Try our 5-day full access trial for free: Other TOEFL Writing Practice Materials. There are other ways to practice besides just answering sample Writing questions. Thesis Statement Informative. TOEFL Writing is designed to measure how strong your English writing skills are, so, any practice you get writing English will help you with this section, even if you’re not directly answering practice exam questions. There are many ways to get writing practice; several of them are described below. Duolingo is jcdc writing a popular free language-learning site. Churchs Thesis. Users answer different types of questions, including writing questions. Jcdc 2012. You can’t choose to essay on the shawshank only answer writing questions, so this isn’t the best resource for targeted writing practice, bu t it’s a good way to strengthen your overall English skills. For advanced English learners, many of Duolingo’s beginning problem sets will likely be too easy, but you can take a quiz to figure out where in the program you should start. Finally, you can also practice writing about jcdc creative, topics that have nothing to do with the TOEFL.
As long as you’re writing in English, you’re getting good practice. Writing about something that interests you can also encourage you to write more. Some ideas for free writing include: Keeping a journal Getting an English-speaking pen pal Starting a blog about a topic that interests you. How to Get the Most Out of Your TOEFL Writing Practice. Now that you’re an of public property essay, expert on creative writing 2012, the best practice resources for TOEFL Writing, the next step is to put those materials to use in the most effective way in essays on a hero's journey, order to see results on test day. Follow these four tips in writing, order to get the churchs thesis, most out of jcdc writing, your practice. Practice Writing in English Regularly. The most important thing you can do to practice for the Writing section of the TOEFL is to practice writing English regularly.
If you can practice every day, that would be ideal, but at the very least you should aim to redemption practice writing 1,000 words in English a week. Remember, this writing practice doesn’t only have to consist of answering TOEFL Speaking questions; any free writing, even just jotting down what you did that day in your diary, counts as writing practice. As mentioned above, official TOEFL resources have the best practice questions out there, so you want to jcdc creative make the most of them. Edexcel Mathematics Coursework. Spread these questions throughout your TOEFL studying; don’t use them all up at the beginning or save them all for the end. You want to be regularly seeing these questions as you prepare. Also, when you answer official practice questions, make sure you set enough time aside to devote your full attention to creative them. Practice them in a quiet room with no distractions, and carefully compare your responses to the sample responses. These aren’t the hero's journey, questions to practice when you have a few minutes to creative writing 2012 spare and need some quick practice while scrolling through your phone.
Want to improve your TOEFL score by 15+ points? Check out our bes online TOEFL course. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your TOEFL score by 15 points or more. Check out our 5-day free trial now: Time Yourself When Writing Practice Essays. When you are writing practice essays, you should also time yourself. Give yourself 20 minutes to plan and write each Integrated Writing task and 30 minutes for each Independent Writing task. Timing yourself when you write will help you be better prepared for a high school application test day because you’ll have practice planning and writing essays within a limited time frame. When you first begin writing practice essays, it can be easy to creative writing competition spend too much time preparing and run out of mathematics coursework, time before you finish writing.
Taking timed practice essays will help you avoid this. Competition 2012. You should also count how many words each of your essays contain after you’ve finished writing them. Integrated tasks should be 150-225 words and essay on the shawshank redemption, Independent tasks should be at least 300 words. After you write each TOEFL practice essay, you should also review it and think about how well it answered the question. This is easier to do if the practice question comes with sample answers that you can compare your answer to, but you should do this step for all practice essays you write, even if they don’t come with any answer explanation. Jcdc Creative Writing 2012. You can also assign your essays a score or have a tutor or friend who’s also studying for essay redemption the TOEFL score your essay. It’s tempting to take a break from TOEFL studying as soon as you’ve finished your essays, but it’s important to writing do this step because it will get you thinking about what great essays look like and how to write essay me, how yours can be improved. Jcdc 2012. The ETS provides the rubric it uses to grade TOEFL writing tasks which you can use to evaluate your essays. Conclusion: Getting the Most Out of Your TOEFL Writing Practice. In order to write good statement informative write two awesome essays for the TOEFL Writing section, you’ll likely have to put in some practice. Once you know what to expect from this section and how you’ll be graded, use a variety of official and unofficial practice resources during your studying.
As you’re preparing for the Writing section, you should also practice writing in English regularly, use official resources wisely, time yourself when writing practice essays, and review your essays after you write them. Looking for more information on the TOEFL Writing section? Learn all the tips you need to jcdc 2012 know in order to ace TOEFL Writing! What score should you be aiming to on a journey get on the TOEFL? Learn what a good TOEFL score is creative based on the schools you’re interested in attending. Looking for property a great TOEFL prep book? A good prep book can be the most important study tool you use, and jcdc creative competition 2012, we have information on all the best TOEFL prep books you should consider.
Ready to write good thesis informative essay improve your TOEFL score by 15 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at jcdc creative competition, improving your score. Write School Application Me. Download it for free now: Christine graduated from Michigan State University with degrees in Environmental Biology and Geography and received her Master's from Duke University. In high school she scored in creative writing, the 99th percentile on the SAT and was named a National Merit Finalist. Gcse Mathematics Coursework. She has taught English and 2012, biology in several countries. View all posts by Christine Sarikas. Get FREE tips to churchs thesis start mastering the TOEFL today. Join our Facebook TOEFL Study Group!
Read Our Top 10 Favorite TOEFL Guides. Applying to jcdc 2012 US Schools (6) English Language Learning (3) TOEFL General Info (26) TOEFL Listening (3) TOEFL Logistics (5) TOEFL Prep (18) TOEFL Reading (4) TOEFL Speaking (6) TOEFL Writing (7) © PrepScholar 2013-2017. All rights reserved. GRE ® and TOEFL ® are registered trademarks of the Educational Testing Service (ETS).
The ETS does not endorse, nor is vandalism property essay it affiliated in competition 2012, any way with the owner or any content of this site. GMAT ® is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council ® (GMAC ® ). On The Shawshank Redemption. The GMAC does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in any way with the creative writing competition 2012, owner or any content of this site.
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25 Things You Should Never Include on jcdc creative competition, a Resume. Coursework. Updated: May 18, 2009. Applying for jcdc creative competition, a new job comes with its fair share of rejections, setbacks, frustrations and perhaps even lonely periods of unemployment. If you#39;ve been turned down for position after position, you could be getting desperate and may want to shake things up a bit so that your résumé will stand out from the write thesis statement informative, piles of others stacked quietly in HR. Before you decide to get too creative, there are some rules to résumé etiquette that you should follow. Read below for the 25 things that you should never include on a professional résumé. 2012. What You Hated About Your Last Job : If you turn your résumé into churchs thesis, a ranting session, you#39;re starting off on the wrong foot.
During an interview, the hiring manager will most likely ask you why you left your last job, but you can use this challenge to creative writing, remain positive. Explain that you wanted to work with a company that promoted more mobility within the business or that you felt your strengths weren#39;t adequately utilized at your last job. What You Hated About Your Last Boss or Co-Workers : Even if your last boss really acted like a tyrant or no one in the office could stand that jerk next to the water cooler, complaining about the past only essay makes you look like the bad guy. Writing. Showing that you are able to essay shawshank redemption, work with all kinds of people will take you far in 2012 the business world. Irrelevant Job Experience : Job experience that is unrelated to the position you#39;re applying for only clutters your resume and edexcel, irritates the HR department. Did your lawn-mowing gig or high-school job as a checker at the grocery store really prepare you to be a PR professional?
There are other ways to prove your people skills, so stick with the creative writing, jobs and internships that are most relevant. Sexual Preference : Your sexual preference has no relevance on gcse mathematics coursework, how well you can perform the job. Jcdc Writing 2012. Leave it out when writing up your résumé, because according to vandalism, Emurse.com, discrimination still exists in the hiring process, and [including this information] may lead to 2012, a premature and of public property, completely unwarranted disposal of your resume. Writing. Religion : Discussing religion in on a hero's journey the workplace is another big no-no for Americans. Creative Writing 2012. Including your religion, or lack thereof, on a résumé is too controversial and is irrelevant to the job. So unless you#39;re applying for a job at churchs thesis a religious institution, exclude this information.
Every Job You#39;ve Had Since You Were 16 : Once you#39;ve been a member of the workforce for a few years, it#39;s safe to say that you can exclude those babysitting jobs you had when you were in high school. Employers look for relevant, recent work experience that will have prepared you for the current position for which you are applying. Competition. Age : Like it or not, some hiring managers will discriminate against employees based on their age. Technically, this kind of discrimination is illegal, but if you seem too young or too old to do the job, you may not even get an edexcel gcse coursework, interview despite what the rest of the résumé says Political Identity : Again, asking your future employer to acknowledge your political leanings is just too controversial. Jcdc Writing. Unless you#39;re attempting to become the next big pundit, it#39;s no one#39;s business if you#39;re überconservative or irrevocably liberal. Lies About Job Experience : If you haven#39;t worked in a managerial position for more than five years, you#39;ll be outed with a simple phone call to your last boss and edexcel mathematics, immediately disqualified from the rest of the hiring process. Writing Competition. If you feel uncomfortable about your lack of skill, focus on the positive and show how other great qualities would make you a great manager or supervisor. Lies About Educational Background : If you lie about where you went to high school, the redemption, hiring manager might not find out, but if you fake the fact that you have higher degrees than you really do, someone is jcdc writing 2012, bound to essays hero's, discover your lie. Background checks are standard at most offices, and even if you get the jcdc writing competition 2012, job, your lack of skill will quickly be revealed.
Bad Grammar : Bad grammar absolutely does not belong on a résumé. It shows that you are lazy, uneducated and don#39;t care enough about the job to pay attention to detail. Even if you think you have great grammar skills, it#39;s best to let someone else look over your résumé as a precaution. Hobbies : While some employers like to see that interviewees are active in the community or have won nonprofessional awards, no one really wants to hero's journey, know that you love knitting with your grandmother or were named the beer-chugging contest winner in college. Jcdc Writing Competition 2012. When in doubt, leave it out. Social Security Number : As a safety precaution, do not include your Social Security number on your résumé. Chances are, your résumé could be floating around a busy HR office where anyone could pick it up. Photograph : JobFairy.com reports that hiring departments legally cannot consider your picture in determining if you are to write thesis essay, be interviewed, or hired, and that many companies won#39;t even consider résumés that are submitted with a picture to writing 2012, ensure that they are in churchs thesis compliance with [the Equal Opportunity Employer] legislation.
Keep in jcdc 2012 mind, however, that if you are applying for jobs overseas, photographs may be the norm on résumés. Physical Characteristics : Just as you should never submit a photograph along with your résumé, it#39;s also best to leave out your physical characteristics, such as your height, weight and hair color, in writing. Describing yourself as a hot blonde is asking for trouble; conversely, overweight job seekers are sometimes unfairly discriminated against. Health Issues : Money-Zine.com reports that an churchs thesis, employer has no legal right to know your health status. The only health-related questions that an jcdc creative writing competition 2012, employer can ask are job related. If you and your doctor feel that your health is adequate enough to complete your job duties as expected, then your health issues are no one else#39;s business.
Information About Your Family Members : Whether or not you#39;re married or have children does not belong on a résumé. Some supervisors automatically assume that a parent of hero's journey, small children will be unavailable to work odd hours, but you should be the one to creative competition, make that call, not them. Boring Words : Instead of writing that you are a dedicated, interesting person, jazz up your vocabulary to stand apart from the statement informative essay, crowd. In general, action words are best. Also, use a thesaurus if you#39;re stuck trying to jcdc 2012, find unique synonyms. Negative Thoughts, Words or Ideas : Even if you have a hard time believing in your strengths, your résumé is not the place to show weakness. If you know that you#39;re not a born leader, consider writing that you work well in groups or that you take direction well. Coursework. Putting a positive spin on yourself will help the hiring manager see you that way also. Blanket Statements : Some companies require applicants to send in writing competition 2012 their salary requests when they apply for a job; however, asking for edexcel gcse, a six-figure salary and not a penny less marks you as being stubborn and difficult work with. You never know what kinds of negotiations can arise in the person-to-person interview, so keep your options open and avoid making blanket statements. Criminal Record : While it#39;s generally best to be honest, including any mention of a criminal record, however insignificant it seems to you, is not advisable for a résumé.
If the HR department has a policy on competition, criminal histories, they#39;ll ask during the interview. Prejudices : If you harbor any prejudices against certain groups or individuals, it#39;s best to keep that to yourself (or consider counseling). Advertising the fact that you don#39;t work well with others is not going to edexcel, get you the jcdc competition 2012, job. Office managers want employees who can blend into the workplace and relate to gcse, their co-workers in jcdc creative 2012 a civilized manner. Churchs Thesis. A Messy Format : In this day and age of advanced but easy-to-use formatting systems and jcdc competition, computer programs, there is no excuse for how to write school application essay, a résumé with messy indents, unequal spacing and other formatting errors. If you#39;re hopelessly inept at working with computers, ask a friend for help.
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Ask someone you trust to edit your résumé for churchs thesis, grammar mistakes, typographical errors and formatting discrepancies to competition, make sure the churchs thesis, hiring department can focus on your skills and experience not your carelessness. Having a fast-growing business is good. Having to overhaul your technology every time you need to creative competition, scale is not. Upgrading to a more complete Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solution can help, but how do you ensure the solution you choose is exactly what you need? To help you with your search, we’ve pulled together 7 key questions every fast-growing business should ask before choosing a cloud-based ERP solution, including: more. Oxford Economics recently surveyed 1,500 finance executives and it’s clear that small and midsize companies are growing significantly faster than larger companies. On A Hero's. But, there are also big opportunities for finance to writing, increase efficiency, boost financial performance, and essay on the shawshank, work more strategically.
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essays and invective Slavoj #381;i#382;ek: Say Anything. In The Fright of Real Tears: Krzysztof Kieslowski between Theory and writing 2012, Post?Theory (London: BFI, 2001), Slavoj #381;i#382;ek makes some criticisms of edexcel gcse mathematics coursework my arguments bearing on writing competition, the history of film style. I reply to those criticisms in the last chapter of Figures Traced in Light (pp. Property Essay? 260264). But there is much more to creative, say about FRT , and of public essay, this online essay supplements my remarks in Figures . The Book and the Background. Most of creative writing FRT offers standard film criticism, providing impressionistic readings of various Kieslowski films in regard to recurring themes, visual motifs, dramatic structures, borrowed philosophical concepts, and the like. #381;i#382;ek also reiterates 1970s argument about how film editing “sutures” the hero's journey viewer into the text.
I’ll have almost nothing to say about these stretches of FRT . But #381;i#382;ek launches the book with an introduction and two chapters criticizing arguments made in a collection of jcdc creative writing competition essays edited by myself and Noël Carroll, Post?Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996). The subtitle of #381;i#382;ek’s book indicates the centrality of what he takes to be the write a high Post?Theory movement, even though he doesn’t pursue arguments about jcdc creative 2012 it through the book. Indeed, the first two chapters seem to me awkwardly welded onto a fairly conventional book of free-associative film interpretation. Why invoke Post?Theory at all, then? The Preface to FRT by Colin MacCabe explains that he asked #381;i#382;ek “to address the weaknesses and insularity of film studies as they had developed in the university sector over the previous two decades” (vii). Film studies, MacCabe feels, has developed a “narrowness and sterility” (vii). It’s worth pausing on churchs thesis, the ironies here. MacCabe was one of the moving spirits of Screen magazine in the 1970s, where the foundations of Lacanian and jcdc, neo-Marxist film theory were laid.
As MacCabe put it in 1974: “Given Screen ’s commitment to theoretical understanding of film, the magazine has been engaged over gcse mathematics the last five years in the elaboration of the various advances in semiotics, structuralism, psychoanalysis and jcdc writing competition 2012, Marxism.” 1 It is this blend that has been endlessly reiterated in the precincts of academic film studies. Across many years, it was the orthodoxy. For many of us, that trend seemed and still seems “narrow and write a high me, sterile.” Judge for yourself, based on this passage signed by MacCabe from the golden age of Screen : The problem is to understand the terms of the construction of the subject and the modalities of the replacement of this construction in specific signifying practices, where “replacement” means not merely the repetition of the writing competition 2012 place of churchs thesis that construction but also, more difficultly, the supplacementthe overplacing: supplementation or, in certain circumstances, supplantation (critical interruption)of that construction in the place of its repetition. 2. It’s a remarkable sentence in many respects, but assuming that it can be explicated, what saves this intellectual project from narrowness and sterility? In the writing 1970s MacCabe declared that this theory was committed to Marx’s concept of class struggle. Exactly how Lacanian psychoanalysis was to assist the class struggle, and why it should be preferred to other means of assisting that struggle, was never made clear in Screen . In any event, MacCabe trots this claim out again as another aim of #381;i#382;ek’s book, which “intervenes” in contemporary debates “without ever abandoning questions of class struggle and the unconscious” (viiiix). Once more, neither MacCabe nor #381;i#382;ek explains why one cannot be a good socialist without reading Lacan. (More on this below.) MacCabe’s objections apply, he says, not to essays on a, film historians, who have conducted “vital and important [sic] work” (vii). This too harbors irony, since the Theoretical Correctness of Screen and its followers blocked historical research from developing in the 1970s.
Primary-document history was labeled “empiricist” and “positivist,” Screen published almost no such work, and for decades afterward, many historians feared being attacked for their lack of Grand Theory acumen. Writing 2012? Efforts to study early cinema history, the history of the U.S. film industry, and churchs thesis, the like emerged in quite different venues from the BFI publications. Now, however, MacCabe welcomes historical research as an area of writing competition 2012 film studies. Rather, it’s film theory that has become inert, “either banally rehashed or obtusely opposed” (viii). Though MacCabe isn’t specific, it seems that the obtuse opposition is property essay incarnated in “ ‘Post?Theory’ and cognitivism” (viii). I say “seems” because this is jcdc creative writing as close as MacCabe gets to naming names: “For those followers of fashion who look for a retreat from Marx and Freud, a hideous mimicking of the threadbare nonsense of the ‘third way,’ this book will be a grave disappointment” (viii). Just parsing this cryptic sentence raises questions: What fashion dictates a retreat from Marx and Freud? One would think that Post?Theory was sweeping the academy. And why didn’t MacCabe object to fashion when Screen theory was reiterated uncritically for decades? Presumably MacCabe finds Post?Theory has parallels with Tony Blair and New Labour’s “Third Way.” 3 What are these affinities?
What grounds can MacCabe have for linking ideas about cinema floated by Midwest college professors to a crisis in redemption British politics, let alone finding the parallels “hideous”? In any event, what’s wrong with positing alternatives to intellectual positions? In any field of inquiry, can’t there be a third, or fourth, or fifth way of asking and answering questions? Evidently MacCabe’s purpose isn’t to make a claim or back a case, merely to fulminate, but even his terms of abuse (“fashion,” “hideous,” “threadbare nonsense”) aren’t specific. Apart from reviving the competition allegiance of Lacan and class struggle, MacCabe says, “#381;i#382;ek’s account of Post?Theory lays bare both its obvious fallacies and its more hidden vanities” (ix). Essay? On the contrary. Although MacCabe designated #381;i#382;ek his hitman, it’s more than a little surprising to jcdc writing competition 2012, find that at nearly every opportunity #381;i#382;ek doesn’t engage with the essay on the shawshank substantive arguments of Post?Theory at all.
There are three essays in the anthology that directly criticize the psychoanalytic project in film theory: Stephen Prince’s “Psychoanalytic Film Theory and the Problem of the Missing Spectator”; my “Contemporary Film Studies and the Vicissitudes of creative competition 2012 Grand Theory”; and Noël Carroll’s “Prospects for Film Theory: A Personal Assessment.” How does #381;i#382;ek address the challenges these essays propose? His chief strategy consists of invective and rhetorical questions. “Does what [the Post?Theory attacks] describe as Theory, or what they attribute to Theory, not read as a comically simplified caricature of Lacan, Althusser et al? Can one really take seriously Noël Carroll’s description of Gaze theorists?” (4). #381;i#382;ek takes you no further. No argument, no evidence, just dismissal à la MacCabe. Then, #381;i#382;ek asks, who are the gcse mathematics “Lacanians” referred to creative 2012, in Post?Theory ? “Except for Joan Copjec, myself, and some of my Slovene colleagues, I know of no cinema theorist who effectively accepts Lacan as his or her ultimate background” (2). Of Public Property Essay? He goes on to mention other writers, such as Laura Mulvey and Kaja Silverman, who accept Lacan’s descriptions of patriarchy but criticize him as a “phallogocentrist” (2). What’s odd here is that Carroll, Prince, and I don’t attack “Lacanians”; the phrase is not to be found in competition our essays. Of Public? Prince concentrates on writing competition, Freud, while Carroll discusses Lacan as one ingredient of 1970s and 1980s film theory. My essay emphasizes what I call subject-position theory, of which Lacanian doctrines form only part.
All three essays speak of psychoanalytic film theory and psychoanalytically inclined theorists. To use a term #381;i#382;ek employs often in vandalism essay FRT , one might say that the Lacanians in these essays exist only jcdc creative writing competition 2012, as his phantasms. In any event, he doesn’t try to fight these phantoms by defending Lacan’s account of mental life against its many rivals. He accepts, as we’ll see shortly, key premises of Lacanianism on faith, as do many people he wouldn’t characterize as deep-dyed Lacanians. #381;i#382;ek’s complaints about write thesis statement informative lumping Lacanians together diverts our attention from the point at jcdc creative issue. Whether Lacan forms an “ultimate background,” whatever that means, isn’t worth disputing. #381;i#382;ek knows perfectly well that a great many film scholars have cited Lacan and used his work to bolster theoretical or interpretive claims. Although the three essays invoke many writers by name (and my essay analyzes one essay by the #381;i#382;ek-endorsed Lacanian Copjec), the essays on a crucial issue is the role Lacan’s theories play within the intellectual doctrines of contemporary film theory.
This #381;i#382;ek doesn’t address. Once we get past rhetorical questions and diversionary tactics, #381;i#382;ek is given an excellent opportunity to creative writing competition, engage with Post?Theory by Stephen Prince’s essay. Prince argues, I think plausibly, that psychoanalysis lacks reliable data on which to build its theories. Records of the clinical session are available only to good thesis statement, the analyst (yielding “nontraceable disclosures”); there are no established standards for interpreting the patient’s discourse; and the analyst inevitably filters the full range of the patient’s reports, summarizing and inflecting them in her interpretation. Jcdc Creative Competition? Prince then argues that these failings are present in Freud’s own classic paper, “A Child is Being Beaten.” Prince goes on to suggest that psychoanalytic theory of cinema is at a disadvantage because of write statement informative its weak account of creative writing 2012 perception and on a hero's journey, its resolute ignoral of the jcdc creative ways in which cinema resembles the mathematics world, both of which can be better accounted for by rival theories. There are many things #381;i#382;ek (and MacCabe, the creative writing book’s patron) would object to here.
But #381;i#382;ek never discusses any of them. It’s entirely possible that Prince has mischaracterized psychoanalytic method, or has misread Freud’s paper, or has misunderstood Lacanian film theory. But #381;i#382;ek doesn’t make any effort to thesis statement informative essay, show weaknesses in the essay. He merely mocks the title (p. Jcdc Creative Competition? 1). Likewise, you’d think that he’d slice my essay to ribbons. “Contemporary Film Studies” delineates two trends in vandalism property the field, what I call subject-position theory (the Screen legacy) and culturalism. I trace those trends historically and try to show continuities between them. Competition? The conceptual continuities I argue for involve social constructivism, theories of subjectivity, the property centrality of identification, and an underlying commitment to jcdc competition 2012, semiotics. I also argue that subject-position adherents and culturalists follow similar argumentative routines, notably a commitment to doctrine-driven inquiry, a fondness for pasting together ideas from essays on a journey, quite divergent theorists, a reliance on association rather than linear reasoning, and a commitment to hermeneutic applications of creative writing competition 2012 theory to films (producing “readings”). On each point I advance some critical remarks, including charges of self-contradiction. A philosopher ought to be rubbing his hands at the prospect of going after this essay.
I could be vulnerable from many angles. #381;i#382;ek could attack my characterization of Freud, Lacan, and the rest; my critiques of same; and above all my outline of the two trends. Most important, although I didn’t have #381;i#382;ek in mind when I wrote the essay, he himself instantiates all the conceptual commitments and rhetorical habits I criticize. His work is a pastiche of many, widely varying intellectual sources (from Ernest Laclau to Stephen Jay Gould). He is an essays, associationist par excellence. Jcdc Creative Writing Competition? His use of films is purely hermeneutic, with each film playing out allegories of theoretical doctrines.
And he never doubts his masters Hegel and Lacan, exemplifying the tendency I characterize this way: “The pronouncements of Lacan, Althusser, Baudrillard, et cie are often simply taken on faith” (21). So my complaints should strike very close to home. Yet not a peep from gcse mathematics, #381;i#382;ek on any of these points. If I’m right, his theoretical program is seriously on the wrong track, but he feels no obligation to engage with my claims. This isn’t the thinker MacCabe says is “determined to follow the jcdc logic of any concept or text through to its bitter or sweet end” (FRT, viii). Churchs Thesis? 4. Carroll and #381;i#382;ek 1: Reply as Confirmation. #381;i#382;ek is a philosopher, so perhaps we’d expect him to engage most fully with another of his profession. Noël Carroll’s essay “Prospects for Film Theory: A Personal Assessment” presents criticisms that are severe and pointed. Jcdc Writing? Carroll argues that proponents of Grand Theory embrace a monolithic conception of theorizing, conflate theorizing with interpreting specific films, use political correctness to churchs thesis, attack their opponents, unwontedly charge opponents with “formalism,” and exhibit a bias against the concept of truth.
Remarkably, #381;i#382;ek responds to not a single one of these charges. Creative Writing 2012? He doesn’t, contra MacCabe, lay bare any fallacies, nor does he mount what he promises in his introduction will be a “critical dialogue with cognitivist/historicist Post?Theory” (7). How To Write A High Essay Me? What he does lay bare, apparently all unawares, are statements wide open to Carroll’s objections. Here is Carroll: Proponents of the jcdc competition 2012 Theory let on that the vandalism property essay Theory grew out of the jcdc 2012 student movement and of public property essay, out of a resistance to oppression everywhere. Consequently, from their point of view, criticism of the Theory virtually represents a clear and present danger to the very Revolution itself. Anyone who opposes the Theory, for whatever reason, is politically suspect. Criticisms of the dubious psychoanalytic premises of the Theory are denounced as reactionaryin a political sense!as if a belief in the equality of races requires assent to Lacan and the rest of the pet paraphernalia of the creative writing competition 2012 Theory. (45). MacCabe’s evocation of the class struggle in his introduction strikes this note, as does #381;i#382;ek’s promise to show how Kieslowski’s work, “the site of good statement informative antagonistic ideological tensions [sic], of the jcdc competition ‘class struggle in churchs thesis art’, can be redeemed by a Lacanian approach” (7). #381;i#382;ek begins his book by saying that the Post?Theory trend is “often sustained by a stance of profound political resignation, by a will to obliterate the jcdc competition traces and disappointments of political engagement” (13).
The one piece of evidence he supplies for this is startlingly shaky. #381;i#382;ek takes the scholar Ben Brewster as “emblematic of the present-day state of write good thesis essay cinema theory” (13). Why? Because Brewster shifted from being a proponent of Screen theory to becoming a film historian displaying an “exclusive preoccupation with pre?1917 cinema” (13). Why does this matter? Because Brewster focuses on a period “prior to the October Revolution, as if to emphasise the creative writing competition will to obliterate the trauma of the gcse mathematics coursework failed leftist involvement in Theory” (13). About #381;i#382;ek’s diagnosis that Brewster’s research constitutes a form of fetishistic disavowal reminiscent of a reluctance to look at feminine genitals, I shall say nothing.
I just want to point out that Brewster has not restricted his research to cinema before 1917, not even in the book #381;i#382;ek mentions in a footnote, 5 so the tenuous thread of association fails even as a literary conceit. On its first page, FRT presents a strained reach for cleverness at the expense of nuance and accuracy. We’ll encounter this strategy again. For our theorists, politics equals left politics equals the glory years of creative writing May 1968 theory. Marx is always invoked, with nods to of public property essay, Eurocommunism, Althusser, and, surprisingly, Mao.
In 1974 MacCabe saluted the Chinese Cultural Revolution as proof that ideology remained a potent force. 6 In a recent DVD liner note on Godard’s Tout va bien , he describes the Cultural Revolution as Mao’s effort to have the Red Guards “revolt against the ruling state and party apparatus. The young were encouraged to creative competition, question authority and to insist on the importance of the write good thesis informative essay class struggle.” 7 MacCabe doesn’t mention that Mao stirred up the young in order to regain his power over that same party apparatus, or that the Red Guards were not encouraged to writing 2012, question his authority, or that the ten years of Cultural Revolution shut down China’s education, exiled intellectuals to labor camps, destroyed centuries of redemption cultural artifacts, killed hundeds of thousands of people, and ruined the lives of millions more. #381;i#382;ek also invokes the Great Helmsman: “To put it in good old Maoist terms, the competition principal contradiction of today’s cinema studies. To continue in a Maoist vein, I am tempted to[identify a given opposition] as the of public second, nonantagonistic contradiction of cinema studies, to be resolved through discussion and self-criticism”(1, 2). Needless to say, why Maoism is jcdc creative writing competition good as well as old doesn’t concern #381;i#382;ekperhaps because, like many of his other citations, this tip of the hat to the cult of personality serves merely as an effort at knowing rhetoric.
Certainly self-criticism doesn’t enter his text. So Carroll’s diagnosisthat theoretical sallies are often justified by an unwarranted link to a particular brand of politicsis borne out by the very book seeking to vandalism property essay, demolish Carroll’s views. Similarly, Carroll’s essay argues that in general film theories don’t necessarily bear traces of the theorist’s political orientation. “I have evolved theories of movie music and point-of-view editing, but they do not, in any sense that could be called logical, imply my political position about anything from gun control, to sexual harassment, to jcdc creative writing competition 2012, communal ownership of the means of production” (46). The reason is that theories generally underdetermine political viewpoints. “Given theories may be espoused by school application me, either the creative competition 2012 forces of light or the forces of darkness” (47). Vandalism Essay? We might expect this to arouse a sustained critique from #381;i#382;ek, who obviously doesn’t believe in the underdetermination of theories; but no such luck. He remains silent. There’s yet another moment in which #381;i#382;ek confirms Carroll’s critique. Carroll’s essay criticizes totalizing conceptions of theory:
Under its aegis, the film theorist sets out to subsume every aspect of writing cinematic phenomena under the putative laws and categories of his or her minimally customized version of the reigning orthodoxy. Theorizing becomes the routine application of some larger, unified theory to questions of statement cinema, which procedure unsurprisingly churns out roughly the same answers, or remarkably similar answers, in every case. The net result, in short, is theoretical impoverishment (41). And here is #381;i#382;ek, claiming that Post?Theory. starts to jcdc creative writing, behave as if there were no Marx, Freud, semiotic theory of ideology, i.e. as if we can magically return to some kind of naivete before things like the unconscious, the overdetermination of of public property essay our lives by the decentred symbolic processes, and so forth became part of our theoretical awareness (14). #381;i#382;ek can’t entertain the prospect that ideas can be “part of our theoretical awareness” and still be invalid. Suppose, just suppose, that all these “things”points of doctrineare shot through with conceptual and creative competition, empirical mistakes. This is what Prince, Carroll, and I are saying.
We don’t ignore this theory; we criticize it. Being skeptical about weak theories isn’t a return to innocence. On The? It’s an jcdc writing, advance; it can cast out essay shawshank redemption, error. 2012? The task is not to call us naïve but rather to show that the unconscious, the overdetermination of so on and so forth remain valid ideas. The way to show this is not by waxing nostalgic for the days when everyone read Althusser, but by overcoming our criticisms. Yet in #381;i#382;ek’s hands, confirming Carroll’s objections once more, Lacanian theory functions as a set of write good thesis statement informative essay axioms or dogmas rather than working ideas to creative writing, be subjected to critical discussion. Post?Theory argues against the very idea of shawshank Theory and supports the idea of creative competition theories and theorizing (p. xiv).
Theories operate at essays on a journey many levels of generality and tackle many different questions. Theorizing is a process of proposing, refining, correcting, and perhaps rejecting answers, in the context of a multidisciplinary conversation. But for #381;i#382;ek, the unconscious, the overdetermination of jcdc creative writing competition 2012 our lives, and all the rest is Theory entire and on a hero's, whole. No intellectual activity (save “historical research”) lives outside it, and it can be discussed only by those already accepting the premises of its sacred texts. And once the only correct Theory is packaged with the only correct political attitudes, you have a powerful weapon against creative competition 2012 anyone who differs. FRT confirms Carroll’s claim: “The Theory has been effectively insulated from sustained logical and on the shawshank redemption, empirical analysis by a cloak of political correctness” (45). Carroll and #381;i#382;ek 2: Dialectics of Inquiry and of Nature. #381;i#382;ek ignores almost all the jcdc creative competition 2012 substantive points Carroll makes in vandalism of public essay his essay. Jcdc 2012? The one issue he singles out is Carroll’s proposal that film studies should be more self-consciously dialectical.
Carroll explains at on the shawshank redemption several points what he means by jcdc writing competition, this. In his sense, dialectics is an churchs thesis, alternative to the method #381;i#382;ek embraces, that of deriving a film theory from axioms or first principles. Instead, dialectical exchange is a form of debate, “defending one’s own theory by demonstrating that it succeeds where alternative theories falter” (56). More extensively: Theories are framed in specific historical contexts of research for the purpose of answering certain questions, and the relative strengths of theories are assayed by comparing the jcdc creative competition 2012 answers they afford to the answers proposed by alternative theories.
This conception of how to write a high school theory evaluation is pragmatic because: (1) it compares actual, existing rival answers to the questions at hand (rather than every logically conceivable answer); and (2) because it focuses on jcdc writing competition, solutions to contextually motivated theoretical problems (rather than searching for answers to any conceivable question one might have about cinema) (56). #381;i#382;ek does object to Carroll’s point, but he misconstrues it. Essay Redemption? He says that this conception of dialectics is “simply the jcdc creative competition 2012 notion of cognition as the gradual progress of thesis essay our always limited knowledge through the testing of specific hypotheses” (14). Now this is plainly not what the passage quoted above says. #381;i#382;ek eliminates the communal and creative writing, comparative dimensions of inquiry Carroll invokes, and introduces “the testing of specific hypotheses.” He goes on to add that the process is “unending,” assigning to Carroll “a modest view of endless competive struggle” (15). Write? But again, Carroll does not say that the process is infinite. He says that by jcdc writing 2012, eliminating error and mounting sound theories, we can arrive at reliable if approximate truths. How To Write Application? These theories may stand for a long time; perhaps a better theory will never come along (58). “There is no reason to concede that we cannot also craft film theories in the here and now that are approximately true” (58). There is nothing inherently unending about this process. So #381;i#382;ek has misunderstood Carroll’s conception of dialectical inquiry. But that’s not all.
Having rewritten Carroll’s claims, #381;i#382;ek blurts out: “Well, if this is dialectics, then Karl Popper, the jcdc creative competition 2012 most aggressive and dismissive critic of Hegel, was the good statement informative essay greatest dialectician of them all!” (15). This expostulation encapsulates many assumptions, all of them questionable. Jcdc? First, Carroll’s conception of theory-building doesn’t follow Popper, since Carroll has made no reference to falsifiability as the write a high school application essay key criterion for conjecture and refutation. Carroll’s view of competition collective problem-solving through debate is a far broader position in the philosophy of science than Popper’s account. Secondly, as Carroll points out in a subsequent version of his essay, “an unbiased examination of the history of philosophy will show, I believe, that Hegel has no patent on dialectics.” 8 I’d go further and on the redemption, observe that the concept of dialectic derives from ancient Greece, and it simply means “conversing.” Carroll is using the concept in its most basic and uncontroversial sense. #381;i#382;ek could have distinguished Carroll’s use from that of other thinkers, notably Hegel, but that would require a careful and painstaking response, not a cri de cœur . Jcdc Creative Writing Competition 2012? To assume that Hegel possesses the only valid concept of the dialectic is vandalism of public something of an undergraduate howler. Finally, Carroll uses the jcdc creative concept of the dialectic as a regulative and pragmatic principle of inquiry. #381;i#382;ek, like Hegel, believes that the how to school dialectic also exists in the world, as a constitutive principle of nature, society, and indeed being itself.
Thus #381;i#382;ek says that there is creative writing competition a dialectic informing the history of film style (pp. 2225). In this way, a particular version of dialectical inquiry is thesis statement justified by an ontological assumption. #381;i#382;ek brooks no dispute on this: again and again he refers to the “proper” use of jcdc creative writing competition dialecticsthe one forged by Hegel and, mysteriously, Freud (25). How To Write Application Essay? But he nowhere defends Hegel’s idea of dialectic against jcdc creative the hosts of objections that have been raised by over a century of critics; nor does he defend his somewhat idiosyncratic version of Hegel. 9 Another philosophical slip#381;i#382;ek confuses epistemic criteria with ontological onesand another moment at which a canonical thinker becomes a security blanket. #381;i#382;ek has one more cluster of objections to Carroll’s conception of dialectical theory-building. “Dialectics proper,” he says, is distinguished by “the way the subject’s position of write application essay enunciation is included, inscribed into the process: the cognitivist speaks from the safe position of the excluded observer who knows the relativity and limitation of all human knowledge, including his own” (15). These are presumably the jcdc writing competition 2012 “hidden vanities” to which MacCabe alludes. The easy answer to this claim is this: #381;i#382;ek uses enunciation theory as the basis for his objection. If you don’t accept a theory of how to write a high application enunciation (which neither Carroll nor I do), the objection fails. Creative Writing 2012? (Note, in passing, #381;i#382;ek’s invocation of enunciation theory rests upon the oft-cited liar paradox: the how to a high school semantic contradiction involved in saying “I am lying” supposedly exemplifies split subjectivity in jcdc creative 2012 all of language.) The equally obvious riposte is churchs thesis that Carroll, cited above, doesn’t believe in the relativity of all human knowledge (he in fact argues against relativism) and instead argues that truth is to some degree attainable. Once more #381;i#382;ek has misunderstood the jcdc writing claims he’s criticizing.
#381;i#382;ek goes on to create a sort of theoretical ad hominem . Vandalism Of Public Property Essay? Having ascribed “modesty” to creative 2012, the position he attacks, he goes on to say that it’s actually an arrogant view. But he does this by again caricaturing the claims. Write Good Statement Essay? “When I say, ‘The theory (which I am deploying) is just an impotent mental construct, while real life persists outside,’ or engage in similar modes of referring to the wealth of pre-theoretical experience, the apparent modesty of such statements harbours the competition 2012 arrogant position of enunciation of the subject who assumes the capacity to compare a theory with ‘real life’” (15). In passing, I note that #381;i#382;ek here seems to equate the subject with an entity like an on the, individual, capable of actions like assuming; but this is creative 2012 a philosophical error, as I point out in my Post?Theory contribution (1415). Also in passing, I note that until #381;i#382;ek shows that enunciation theory is a plausible account of language or mental activity, his diagnosis, which wholly depends on churchs thesis, this theory, need cause me no worries. Jcdc Creative Writing 2012? More substantially, Carroll, Prince, and I never say or imply that our theoretical conjectures are “impotent mental constructs” when faced with the teeming reality outside our theories. Where does he get this stuff?
And what’s so arrogant about comparing a theory with real life? #381;i#382;ek does it all the time. Consider this passage from an interview, in gcse mathematics coursework which #381;i#382;ek is jcdc creative 2012 asked about his fondness for Lenin’s theories: What I like in Lenin is precisely what scares people about him-the ruthless will to discard all prejudices. Shawshank? Why not violence? Horrible as it may sound, I think it’s a useful antidote to competition, all the aseptic, frustrating, politically correct pacifism. Let’s take the campaign against smoking in vandalism of public essay the U.S. Writing Competition 2012? I think this is a much more suspicious phenomenon than it appears to be. If #381;i#382;ek can apply Leninist politics of violence to informative, anti-smoking legislation (will he found a Cheka to purge nonsmokers?), I assume that other theorists aren’t being arrogant in talking of jcdc creative writing how comparatively harmless movies relate to the world we live in. Dialogue versus Monologue. Throughout #381;i#382;ek’s objections to Carroll’s notion of dialectical inquiry, one blind spot is evident. In his references to “testing hypotheses” and the isolated “subject of enunciation,” in churchs thesis his accounts of writing 2012 dialectical thinking by the solitary theorist, he ignores the intersubjective dimension of theorizing.
Dialectical inquiry proceeds because a researcher belongs to a community committed to both rational and empirical investigation. Whatever one’s personal feelings about write good statement informative people arguing against creative 2012 you, the regulative ideal of a research community is respect for churchs thesis, argumentation and evidence. Jcdc Creative Competition 2012? People who don’t agree with you aren’t your enemies; their criticisms may be painful, but one cooperates with them in an effort to attain more conceptual precision and empirical adequacy. Yet consider what #381;i#382;ek claims in another book, in commenting on an essay in Post?Theory : Lenin liked to point out that one could often get crucial insights into essays journey one’s own weaknesses from the perception of intelligent enemies. So, since the current essay attempts a Lacanian reading of David Lynch’s Lost Highway , it may be useful to jcdc creative writing competition 2012, start with a reference to “Post?Theory,” the recent cognitivist orientation of cinema studies that establishes its identity by a thorough rejection of Lacanian cinema studies. Essay Shawshank? 10. Lenin, of jcdc writing competition course, saw his political opponents as his enemies, and he dealt with them as such. But to characterize one’s intellectual opponents this way is revealing of #381;i#382;ek’s attitude toward debate. One doesn’t cooperate with enemies. Another regulative principle of write good statement informative essay collective truth-seeking is dialogue. Whatever their personal motives, scholars are united in seeking logically sound theories that illuminate a range of phenomena.
That’s what allows debate to flourish. Writing? When the how to write essay community norms flag, debate withers and theory becomes a chorus of monologues. Arguably, though, #381;i#382;ek fails to jcdc creative writing 2012, grasp the intersubjective dimension of theorizing because he doesn’t believe in theory as a conversation within a community, a process of question and answer and coursework, rebuttal. This construal of his attitude toward theory fits what we know of his intellectual demeanor. Consider these reports from an admiring journalist: 11. Bearded, disheveled, and loudBarely pausing to sit down, #381;i#382;ek launches into a monologue so learned and jcdc creative writing competition, amusing that it could very well appearverbatimin one of the many books he has written (42).
“Discussing Hegel and how to school essay me, Lacan is like breathing for Slavoj. I’ve seen him talk about theory for four hours straight without flagging,” says UCBerkeley’s Judith Butler. When not mediated by the printed page, however, the obsessive-compulsive quality that makes his hyperkinetic prose so exhilarating is somewhat overwhelmingeven, evidently, for #381;i#382;ek himself. Popping the occasional Xanax to settle his nerves, he tells me about his heart problems and panic attacks. As his eyes dart around the room and his manic monologue becomes more frantic, I fear that I may be his last interviewer. #381;i#382;ek is like a performance artist who is terrified of abandoning the stage; once he starts talking, he seems unable to stop (42). #381;i#382;ek has developed an elaborate set of psychological tricks to manipulate his American students and enable him to have as little contact with them as possible. Creative? At the first meeting of coursework each course, he announces that all students will get an A and jcdc competition 2012, should write a final paper only if they want to. Coursework? “I terrorize them by creating a situation where they have no excuse for giving me a paper unless they think it is really good. Creative Writing Competition? This scares them so much, that out of essay forty students, I will get only a few papers,” he says. “And I get away with this because they attribute it to my ‘European eccentricity.’ ” #381;i#382;ek says that he deals with student inquiries in a similar spirit. “I understand I have to take questions during my lectures, since this is America and jcdc creative writing competition, everybody is allowed to talk about everything. But when it comes to office hours, I have perfected a whole set of on the redemption strategies for how to block this,” he says with a smirk. “The real trick, however, is to minimize their access to jcdc creative competition, me and simultaneously appear to be even more democratic!” Initially, #381;i#382;ek scheduled office hours immediately before class so that students could not run on churchs thesis, indefinitely.
Then he came up with the idea of requiring them to submit a written question in advance, on the assumption that most would be too lazy to do it (they were). #381;i#382;ek reserves what he calls “the nasty strategy” for large lecture classes in which the students often don’t know one another. “I divide the jcdc writing competition 2012 time into essays six twenty-minute periods and then fill in the slots with invented names. That way the students think that all the hours are full and I can disappear,” he claims (49). There’s a lot to digest hereparticularly the rich image of a theorist who pronounces on all things political, historical, aesthetic, and creative writing, psychological criticizing Americans for being “allowed to talk about everything”but you don’t need to be either a cognitivist or a psychoanalyst to hazard one conclusion. An insistent monologist and on a hero's, a teacher confessing himself uninterested in student response might not be able to appreciate the community-driven nature of inquiry postulated by Post?Theory . This, then, is what #381;i#382;ek’s “critical dialogue” with Post?Theory amounts to. Once more Carroll proves prophetic: “Sustained, detailed, intertheoretical debate and criticism is rare in the history of film theoryNowadays this tendency is particularly pronounced in discussions of cognitivism, which view is swiftly dismissed by castigating buzz-words like ‘formalism,’ or maybe ‘idealism,’ uttered just before the author goes on to repeat, at length, yet again, the received wisdom of Theory” (57). #381;i#382;ek obviously thinks that he has engaged in a critical dialogue, and he’s not alone. A review 12 of FRT praises #381;i#382;ek as “formidably well-read,” a “subtle theorist” able to operate “at the highest levels of creative writing competition 2012 psychological and philosophical abstraction.” The book offers, in the reviewer’s opinion, “A mode of aesthetic analysis that fully describes the most spectral and intangible [sic] of film without compromising the write statement informative underlying theoretical rigor.” Everything I’ve said so far indicates that I can’t agree. Where are the subtleties? Where is the rigor?
The reviewer doesn’t say, passing over the book’s avowedly theoretical chapters in a couple of paragraphs. Perhaps the reviewer accepts #381;i#382;ek’s own conception of Post?Theory . The reviewer says that #381;i#382;ek’s “fierce critique” rests on the idea that Post?Theory “attempts to move away from a reliance on theory and back toward more empirical accounts of jcdc creative competition 2012 film.” Since anyone who read Post?Theory would understand that we plead for better theories, not the elimination of theoretical work, I have to conclude that the reviewer relies on edexcel gcse, #381;i#382;ek’s characterization of the book’s project. And this is a mistake, for #381;i#382;ek makes several errors. First, he claims that the Post?Theory collection is “a kind of manifesto” of cognitive film theory. 2012? 13 This flies in the face of the introduction to Post?Theory , where Carroll and I say, “It needs to be stressed that though a number of the articles in this volume are cognitivist, the volume itself is not a primer in cognitivism. The unifying principle in this book is of public property that all the research included exemplifies the possibility of scholarship that is not reliant upon the psychoanalytic framework that dominates film academia (xvi).” Moreover, there is cognitivist film theory that isn’t “post-theoretical”; presumably many people pursuing cognition-based answers to theoretical questions don’t reject psychoanalysis from the standpoint we adopt. Many psychologists studying filmic perception have probably never heard of jcdc Jacques Lacan. I conclude that #381;i#382;ek uses the essay term “Post?Theory” to sum up a broad movement he takes to be emerging within film studies as the principal rival to the psychoanalytic (specifically, Lacanian) paradigm. This makes a conveniently broad target, but only at the expense of subtlety and rigor. When #381;i#382;ek treats the Post?Theory movement as “the cognitivist and/or historicist reaction” to Grand Theory ( FRT , 1), he displays a second confusion. To call the historical essays collected in Post?Theory “historicist” is at best ambiguous.
In the relevant sense, historicism involves the writing competition 2012 belief that concepts held by historical agents at a given time are sui generis and can’t be unproblematically translated into terms available at essay shawshank redemption the historian’s moment. For example, Foucault’s position in “What Is an Author?” can be described as historicist. He posits that the modern concept of the author came into existence at a particular time and place and can’t be presumed to operate in earlier circumstances. Jcdc Writing Competition? But historicism in this sense plainly isn’t advocated or even presupposed by the historians in the Post?Theory collection; their essays don’t take a position on this issue. Of course it’s possible that #381;i#382;ek simply means to indicate that the essays are historical studies; but then he’s misusing the term “historicism.” As a philosopher, #381;i#382;ek should be committed to clarifying terms rather than fogging them. At some point someone is likely to say that #381;i#382;ek is elusive because he’s playful. His flights of write good statement informative fancy try to jcdc creative 2012, get you to think outside the box; he’s a provocateur. I suppose this comes down to taste, but I find #381;i#382;ek not provocative at all.
Praising Lacan, Lenin, and churchs thesis, Mao seems to me not rebellion but a retread. And we come at some point to a matter of sincerity. When is he not being playful? When is he putting forth a claim he’s committed to? For example, in FRT he proposes that pictures have two frames, one external, one internal, “the frame implied by the structure of the painting” (130). Jcdc Creative Writing Competition 2012? “These two frames by a high school me, definition never overlap” (130). Jcdc Writing Competition 2012? 14 Yet in his prologue, #381;i#382;ek explains that at a conference, asked to essay, comment on a picture, he “engaged in a total bluff” (5) by positing the existence of these two frames. He goes on to make fun of people who took it seriously: To my surprise, this brief intervention was a huge success, and jcdc creative writing competition, many following participants referred to the dimension in-between-the-two-frames, elevating it into shawshank a term.
This very success made me sad, really sad. What I encountered here was not only the efficiency of a bluff, but a much more radical apathy at the very heart of today’s cultural studies (6). The postmodern emperor doesn’t need a child in the crowd to point out his nakedness; he does so himself, and mourns the fact that he fooled so many. But the jcdc creative writing competition 2012 question nags us: Are we to believe the two-frames theory when it’s floated later in the book? Evidently not, since it’s admittedly a bluff.
But perhaps #381;i#382;ek really believes the theory, so that in the prologue, when he says that his theory is a bluff, he’s bluffing. This compels us to ask: Might not everything he says about Lacan, Post?Theory, and the rest be a bluff akin to the two-frames bluff? No wonder #381;i#382;ek takes the Liar’s Paradox to be the prototype of how to a high school essay me language use. What others might find a dizzying display of academic cleverness makes me sad too, but perhaps in a different way. Are we wasting our time in expecting #381;i#382;ek to offer reasonable arguments? Fundamental questions of creative writing competition responsibility arise here, especially in relation to a writer not hesitant to thesis statement essay, condemn the beliefs and actions of others. Writing Competition 2012? It’s tedious to be lectured on essays hero's journey, morality and ethics from someone who casually announces petty acts of deceit, like sneaking out of office hours or fooling gullible academics who are eager to take a master’s every word as a revelation. “Well,” #381;i#382;ek or a sympathetic reviewer might ask me, “can’t we say that he engages seriously and straightforwardly with your claims? He has much to say about your book, On the History of Film Style and jcdc writing 2012, your claims about contingent universals in churchs thesis one essay of Post?Theory .” He does indeed. I was surprised, however, that when he turns on his analytical powers, how little his objections amount to. I’ve made my reply in Figures Traced in competition Light (260264), so I won’t rehash it here.
I think I show that when #381;i#382;ek tries to churchs thesis, be serious and dismantle an jcdc creative 2012, argument critically, the results are vague, digressive, equivocal, contradictory, and either obviously inaccurate or merely banal. This might explain why he so seldom tries to be analytical. Vagueness, digressions, equivocations, etc. are less apparent if you’re playful. But we can forgive all this, others will reply, because #381;i#382;ek is such a lively writer. Recall that Boynton, above, calls his prose “hyperkinetic” and “exhilarating,” and names him “a dazzlingly acute thinker and prose stylist.” Frankly, I can’t imagine Boynton and journey, I are reading the competition 2012 same writer. As with many contemporary theorists, #381;i#382;ek’s dominant register is what Frederick Crews has called ponderous coyness. Good? 15 His humor is academic, and academic humor is to humor as military intelligence is to jcdc writing competition 2012, intelligence. As for the texture of the prose, try to find the acuteness and hyperkinesis here:
The underlying principle and support of this thesis of the symbolic order is edexcel mathematics that, in each field of meaning, if this field is to be ‘totalised,’ there has to be an additional/excessive signifier which, as it were, gives a positive figure to that which cannot be properly included into this field, somewhat like Spinoza’s well-known criticism of the jcdc writing competition 2012 traditional personalized notion of God: at on the the point at which our positive knowledge of the causal links fails, we supplement this lack with the jcdc creative idea of ‘God,’ which, instead of providing a precise idea of a cause, just fills in the lack of this idea. ( FRT , 6465). Not only is edexcel gcse this an obscure and pretentious way of recycling a familiar post-Structuralist idea, the jcdc creative competition 2012 sentences aren’t minimally well-written. (I grant that “as it were” is a nice touch, as if the entire passage weren’t built on metaphors and on the redemption, supposition.) In all, this writing style isn’t a good way to jcdc competition 2012, achieve #381;i#382;ek’s goal of distinguishing “Theory proper” from “its jargonistic imitation” ( FRT , 5). What makes people think that #381;i#382;ek writes gracefully, I think, is the casual way he drops in movies, current event, and homely examples. So this: “These partial objets petit a are neither subjective nor objective, but the short-circuit of the vandalism of public property two dimensions: the subjective stain/stand-in that sustains the order of objectivity, and competition 2012, the objective ‘bone in how to write a high school the throat’ that sustains subjectivity” ( FRT , 65) is jcdc competition 2012 followed by: “Does this not provide the gcse mathematics coursework reason why, in so-called caper films?” ( FRT , 66). A stretch of churned mud is jcdc creative 2012 softened by a stream of colorful, if far-fetched, examples.
Cutely illustrating an ontological concept through mundane instances seems to make for a user-friendly approach. In every appreciation of gcse mathematics #381;i#382;ek, there is creative writing 2012 a sentence somewhere marveling at essay shawshank how his vision sweeps from lofty abstraction to pop-culture examples. “He takes in subjects including national cuisines, the Cathar heresy and the literature and film of the GDR, citing Plato, Hegel, Derrida, Heidegger and jcdc creative writing 2012, more” (Monroe, “Fright of edexcel gcse mathematics coursework Real Theory”). But such potshot erudition is in fact quite easy to achieve. Jcdc Creative 2012? If academics are this easily impressed by name-dropping, no wonder #381;i#382;ek’s bluffs find success. And from this standpoint, #381;i#382;ek’s claim that correct thought moves from universal concepts to singular manifestations can be seen to serve the strategic purpose of justifying his grandiloquent rhetorical leaps from the sublime to the ridiculous, from Leninist strictures on violence to anti-smoking legislation. Finally, I’m left with the question: Why do #381;i#382;ek and MacCabe elevate a single anthology ( Post?Theory ) into a movement (Post?Theory)? The book has won little attention, and no one else has built it into a mighty opposite to Lacanian theory. I can only speculate. My hunch is that both #381;i#382;ek and MacCabe see intellectual work as a struggle for power. Recall their admiration for the likes of Lenin and Mao, note their rhetoric of enemies and obtuse opposition, and then observe that other passages suggest that by write statement, calling for conceptual and empirical theorizing, Post?Theory aligns itself with science. And science is a threat.
After telling us that no quantum physicists worry about the ontology of what they observe (I suspect this will depend on what you mean by ontology), #381;i#382;ek complains: The objectivised language of experts and scientists. Competition 2012? . .can no longer be translated into the common language, available to essay on the shawshank redemption, everyone, but is present in it in the mode of fetishized formulae that no one really understands, but which shape our artistic and popular imaginary (Black Hole, Big Bang, Superstrings, Quantum Oscillations). The gap between scientific insight and common sense is unbridgeable, and it is this very gap which elevates scientists into the popular cult-figures of the ‘subjects supposed to know’ (the Stephen Hawking phenomenon) ( FRT , 67). As usual, any few lines of #381;i#382;ek demand both glossing and interrogation. He starts by talking about common language, then shifts to talking about common sense; but the two aren’t the same. Jcdc? Although many scientific ideas violate common sense, they can be put in intelligible language.
Can it really be said that science writers like Stephen Gould, Richard Dawkins, Matt Ridley, Jared Diamond, Deborah Blum, Helena Cronin, John Gribbin, and essay shawshank, James Gleick can’t explain difficult scientific concepts to readers prepared to spend a little time thinking? Moreover, given #381;i#382;ek’s tortured style, does he seem to have any regard for writing in jcdc competition 2012 a “common language, available to gcse mathematics coursework, everyone”? And if it’s wrong for scientists to be elevated as “subjects supposed to know,” why isn’t the creative 2012 same stricture applied, say, to Freud and Lacan, who have become far more Delphic oracles than Einstein or Hawking? Or even applied to how to a high school, the “popular cult-figure” of the larger-than-life, I-am-ze-bull European intellectual who says outrageous things in order to rouse us from jcdc, our bourgeois slumber? Needless to say, #381;i#382;ek is school essay strategically vague; his comments evoke attitudes, not arguments. Nor does he mention that, whatever cult value may attend to scientists in creative writing 2012 the popular press, the general public remains remarkably resistant to scientific findings and scientific thinking. Most Americans believe in write good thesis informative essay angels and a literal place called Hell. Most accept astrology, consider the theory of evolution unfounded, and jcdc creative writing 2012, think that dinosaurs and churchs thesis, humans lived at the same time. This state of affairs, surely related to competition, the class struggle, won’t be changed by another gloss on the concept of suture. Someone will remark that at least #381;i#382;ek loves movies. To this there’s an easy reply.
Who doesn’t? 1 : Colin MacCabe, “Days of Hope-A Response to Colin McArthur,” Screen 17, 1 (Spring 1976), 103. 2 : Ben Brewster, Stephen Heath, and Colin MacCabe, “Comment,” Screen 16, 2 (Summer 1975), 87. 3 : Thanks to Benjamin Noys for pointing this out to me. 4 : I can’t resist adding that #381;i#382;ek’s third chapter, devoted to the notion of churchs thesis suture, misses another opportunity. Instead of recycling confused 1960s and 1970s claims about point-of-view cutting, he could have attacked the cognitivist criticisms of suture theory that I float in Narration in the Fiction Film (Madison, 1985), 110113. 5 : Ben Brewster and Lea Jacobs, Theatre to jcdc 2012, Cinema: Stage Pictorialism and the Early Feature Film (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).
See the many discussions of how to a high essay me 1917 releases in the book, as well as the analysis of (1919), 133-136. See also Ben Brewster, “The Circle: Lubitsch and the Theatrical Farce Tradition,” Film History 13, 4 (2001), 372389. 6 : Ben Brewster and Colin MacCabe, “Editorial: Semiology and Sociology,” Screen 15, 1 (Spring 1974), 78. 7 : Colin MacCabe, “Postscript to May 1968,” Tout va bien program booklet, Criterion DVD no. 275 (2005), 20.
9 : I say idiosyncratic because #381;i#382;ek says (and he’s apparently not being playful here): “The basic rule of dialectics is thus: whenever we are offered a simple enumeration of subspecies of a universal species, we should always look for creative competition 2012, the exception to the series” (27). I’m not sure that Hegel would agree that this is the essays hero's journey basic rule, but it’s a good research strategy. Always look out for counterexamples to jcdc competition 2012, universal claimsespecially those made by psychoanalytic theory! Remarkably, #381;i#382;ek goes on: “For example, it is my conjecture that the of public key to jcdc writing competition 2012, Hitchcock’s entire opus [sic] is the film which is churchs thesis integral and at the same time an exception. The Trouble with Harry (1954)” (27). Ontology and creative writing, epistemology, not argued for but rather illustrated, and by a Hitchcock movie at that: such is the zigzag of the #381;i#382;ekian dialectic. 11 : All these quotations come from Robert S. Essay? Boynton, “Enjoy Your #381;i#382;ek!” Lingua Franca 8, 7 (October 1998): 4150. 12 : Alexei Monroe, “The Fright of Real Theory,” in competition Kinoeye: New Perspectives on thesis, European Film , available at http:/www.kinoeye.org/01/04/monroe04.php.
14 : To be fussily philosophical, if this distinction is true “by definition” it can only be a deductive truth (which it obviously isn’t) or a stipulative definition posited by jcdc creative writing competition 2012, the speaker. How To Write School? If it’s the latter, we require further conceptual or empirical proof that the stipulation is reasonable. #381;i#382;ek provides none. 15 : Frederick Crews, “‘Kafka Up Close’: An Exchange,” New York Review of Books (7 April 2005), 80. have comments about the state of this website? go here.
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Framing Effects in jcdc competition 2012, Younger and vandalism of public property Older Adults. A growing literature on decision making in creative 2012, older adults suggests that they are more likely to use heuristic processing than are younger adults. We assessed this tendency in the context of a framing effect, a decision-making phenomenon whereby the language used to describe options greatly influences the decision maker#x02019;s choice. We compared decision making under a standard (#x0201c;heuristic#x0201d;) condition and also under a #x0201c;justification#x0201d; condition known to reduce reliance on heuristics. Mathematics. In the jcdc creative competition standard condition, older adults were more susceptible than younger adults to framing but the two groups did not differ when participants were asked to coursework, provide a justification. Thus, although older adults may spontaneously rely more on heuristic processing than younger adults, they can be induced to take a more systematic approach to decision making.
THE term framing effect refers to a phenomenon whereby the choices people make are systematically altered by writing competition 2012 the language used in the formulation of options. For example, in the well-known Asian disease task (Tversky #x00026; Kahneman, 1981), participants in the so-called positive frame condition make a treatment choice based on essays on a hero's journey a description of lives saved (e.g., 200 out of jcdc competition 2012, a total of 600 people will be saved); by contrast, in the so-called negative frame condition, participants make a treatment choice based on a description of lives lost (e.g., 400 out of a total of 600 people will die). Good Essay. Despite the creative writing competition 2012 identical underlying basis of the write a high me two versions of the problem, people make different choices: They are more likely to writing competition, be risk averse (i.e., to move away from a risky option) when questions are framed as gains (i.e., positively) and how to write school essay me more risk seeking (i.e., to jcdc 2012, move toward a risky option) when questions are framed as losses (i.e., negatively). The literature on these and other framing-effect problems is extensive (for reviews, see Levin, Schneider, #x00026; Gaeth, 1998; also see K#x000fc;hberger, 1998). However, the research has mainly used college students as participants and the performance of older adults has rarely been the central focus of the essay on the redemption research.
Although older adults were included in jcdc creative writing competition, some studies with professionals, experts, and patients (e.g., Loke #x00026; Tan, 1992; McNeil, Pauker, Sox, #x00026; Tversky, 1982; Roszkowski #x00026; Snelbecker, 1990), the age of the samples in these studies was also confounded with other characteristics such as expertise and informative essay some medical conditions. Previously, we (Kim #x00026; Hasher, 2005) demonstrated superior performance by older adults in competition, decision making using attraction-effect tasks, suggesting that older adults can, under some circumstances, show performance better than that of shawshank, younger adults, perhaps because they have greater life experience in decision making (e.g., Hertwig, Barron, Weber, #x00026; Erev, 2004). Jcdc Creative Writing Competition. In the current study, we were also interested in examining whether older adults can perform better than younger adults in decision making in the context of on the shawshank, a framing effect. Writing Competition 2012. As in our previous study, it is conceivable that older adults are less likely to good statement essay, show framing effects than younger adults because they have greater life experience in jcdc competition, decision making. However, an alternative hypothesis is also possible. In the framing-effect literature, there is some evidence that even people with experience or expertise are not immune to framing effects (e.g., Loke #x00026; Tan, 1992; Roszkowski #x00026; Snelbecker, 1990). Further, a number of how to school application essay, explanations have been proposed for creative, framing effects (e.g., see K#x000fc;hberger, 1997, for a review); there has been some agreement that, in many instances, #x0201c;framing#x0201d; is the product of good thesis informative essay, heuristic information processing (e.g., McElroy #x00026; Seta, 2003). This proposal is strengthened by demonstrations that framing effects can be reduced when circumstances press for detailed processing, for example, when participants must provide a rationale for their selections (e.g., Sieck #x00026; Yates, 1997; Takemura, 1993).
Thus, because there is evidence that older adults tend to rely on heuristic processing more than younger adults (e.g., Johnson, 1990), it is creative competition 2012 conceivable that older adults are more likely to show framing effects. Verbal framing could be a case in which greater life experience at making decisions does not benefit older adults. If it is such a case, then our question becomes whether asking for of public property essay, a rationale for a decision can increase reliance on detailed processing and thus make it possible for older adults to make decisions that are similar to those of younger adults. One hundred and eighty-six undergraduate students (aged 17 to 28 years) from the University of Toronto and 186 senior citizens (aged 58 to 78 years) from the Toronto area participated in jcdc creative, this study. Older adults had significantly higher vocabulary scores ( M = 29.43, SD = 9.27), as assessed by the Extended Range Vocabulary Test (ERVT), version 3 (Educational Testing Service, 1976), than younger adults ( M = 19.39, SD = 7.04), t (368) = 11.75. Younger adults received credit for an introductory psychology course and older adults received $10 for their participation. We used two problems, each with a positive and churchs thesis negative frame. We adopted one problem, the #x0201c;fatal disease#x0201d; problem, from Wang, Simons, and Br#x000e9;dart (2001). We did not use the well-known Asian disease problem in this study because of the creative writing 2012 demographic characteristics in the Greater Toronto area, in which a considerable portion of the population is Asian. We adopted the how to write a high school essay me other problem, the #x0201c;cancer treatment#x0201d; problem, from McNeil and colleagues (1982; see Appendix).
Note that, for writing competition 2012, both problems, the option labeled as B is the one that previous work shows is chosen reliably more in the negative frame than in the positive frame. The experiment was a 2 (Age: young and old) #x000d7; 2 (Frame: positive and negative) #x000d7; 2 (Justification: with and without justification) between-subjects design. There were 53 participants in each without-justification group and statement informative 40 in each with-justification group. Participants in the with-justification condition were asked to provide a rationale in creative writing, writing for their choice prior to thesis essay, actually indicating their choice (Sieck #x00026; Yates, 1997). Jcdc Creative Competition. Participants who were in the without-justification condition were not asked to vandalism of public property essay, provide a rational for their choice. Each participant received both problems in a counterbalanced order in either their positive or negative frame.
Because research has shown that a reliance on analytic strategies is more likely at optimal times of day whereas a reliance on heuristic strategies is more likely at nonoptimal times (e.g., Bodenhausen, 1990), and because optimal times are different for 2012, younger and older adults (e.g., Yoon, May, #x00026; Hasher, 1999), we tested at thesis statement normatively optimal times for writing competition, each group, that is, in the morning for older adults and in the afternoon for younger adults. Our goal was to vandalism of public property essay, increase the likelihood that analytic strategies would be used by both groups in creative writing, the standard condition. For Each Problem: Problem-by-Problem Analysis. The dependent variable was the how to application essay me proportion of younger and older adults selecting Option B in each problem (see Table 1 ). We used a chi-square test to jcdc writing 2012, assess whether the mathematics choice proportions were significantly different across the two frames (especially, whether the choice proportion is significantly higher in jcdc writing competition, the negative frame than in the positive frame), indicating the presence of a framing effect. In the write thesis statement essay without-justification condition, younger adults did not show a reliable framing effect in the fatal disease problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 106) = 0.99, and they showed a marginal effect in creative, the cancer treatment problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 106) = 3.13, p = .08. (The effect size of the original Asian disease problem is actually exceptionally large; its effect size was categorized as an outlier in the meta-analysis of K#x000fc;hberger, 1998. A High Application Essay. According to him, an average effect size of Asian disease types of problems, i.e., problems with risk manipulation by a reference point, is around medium. Jcdc 2012. To give room for an effect to go up or down with younger and older participants, we selected problems with effect sizes slightly lower than medium in the current study. Perhaps this is the redemption reason why we did not find framing effects in jcdc creative writing, younger adults in each problem.) Older adults, by contrast, showed a significant framing effect for both the fatal disease problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 106) 2 (1, N = 9.95, p #x0003c; .01, and the cancer treatment problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 106) = 16.06, p #x0003c; .01. In the with-justification condition, younger adults did not show a framing effect for either the problem of fatal disease, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 80) = 0.25, or of cancer treatment, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 80) = 1.26.
Similarly, older adults did not show a framing effect = for write a high school, either the jcdc creative writing competition fatal disease problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 80) = 1.32, or the cancer treatment problem, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 80) = 1.35. Across Problems: Pooled Data Analysis. We combined the choice data from the how to write a high school application two problems to creative 2012, enable a powerful test of our hypotheses. (In order to examine the independence of a high school me, participants#x02019; responses across two problems, we used McNemar#x02019;s test. McNemar#x02019;s test is 2012 a test used to essay on the shawshank, examine whether repeated categorical responses in two different conditions are independent of each other. The test results showed that responses or choices are independent, i.e., significantly different, from each other across the two problems for younger and older adults, respectively, in creative writing, each justification condition. Vandalism Of Public. Thus, these results should ensure that our collapsing of data across problems does not violate the responseindependence assumption of jcdc competition 2012, logistic regression.) We analyzed these pooled data by on a hero's journey using logistic regression to examine main effects and interactions among three independent variables: frame (positive and jcdc creative writing competition negative), age (young and old) and justification (with and without justification). First, we carried out vandalism of public model selection by using stepwise and creative 2012 backward selection methods to find a logistic regression model that best fits the data (e.g., SAS Institute, 1989). The final model we selected (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit #x003c7; 2 = 1.58, p = .95, df = 6) excluded the three-way interaction (Age #x000d7; Justification #x000d7; Frame) and the one two-way interaction (Age #x000d7; Justification), and it included only three main effects (frame, age, and justification) and two two-way interactions (Age #x000d7; Frame and Justification #x000d7; Frame). Of these five parameters in journey, the final model, three (one main effect and jcdc creative writing two interactions) were statistically significant. Specifically, the main effect of frame was significant, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 744) = 6.84, p #x0003c; .01, indicating an edexcel gcse mathematics coursework overall framing effect. Creative Writing. This effect, however, was qualified by redemption two hypothesized interactions#x02014;Age #x000d7; Frame, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 744) = 4.66, p #x0003c; .05, and Justification #x000d7; Frame, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 744) = 4.53, p #x0003c; .05.
The Age #x000d7; Frame interaction indicates that participants#x02019; age had an effect on the magnitude of the creative competition framing effect. To probe this further, we performed a separate logistic regression analysis for each age group. Mathematics. The main effect of frame was significant only for older adults, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 372) = 22.29, p #x0003c; .01, but not for creative competition 2012, younger adults, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 372) = 3.13, p = .08, suggesting that older adults were more = vulnerable = to= this framing effect than younger adults. The Justification #x000d7; Frame interaction indicates that the justification manipulation had an effect on the magnitude of the framing effect. Separate analyses that we performed for each justification condition revealed a significant main effect of frame only for the without-justification condition, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 424) = 23.14, p #x0003c; .01, but not for the with-justification condition, #x003c7; 2 (1, N = 320) = 2.12. These results suggest that the justification manipulation significantly reduced the essays framing effect for both younger and older adults. In the creative writing current study we examined whether there are age differences in vulnerability to a framing effect. Faced with a problem couched in terms of the a high application me number of writing competition 2012, people who will die as a result of two treatments#x02014;the classic negative frame#x02014; older adults were more risk seeking than younger adults and, by contrast, when given the property essay identical problem couched in terms of the jcdc competition number of people who will live#x02014;the positive frame#x02014;older adults were more risk averse than younger adults. We observed a very similar pattern in the second problem, with older adults in this instance proving more likely to focus on essay short-term survival in the negative frame and on long-term survival in the positive frame.
In other words, older adults#x02019; decisions were more influenced by creative writing 2012 the language frame, at least for problems such as those used here, both of vandalism essay, which may well have an emotional context. Furthermore, as we expected on the basis of earlier studies asking younger participants to 2012, provide a rationale for their decisions (e.g., Sieck #x00026; Yates, 1997; Takemura, 1993), the essays hero's journey justification manipulation significantly reduced the jcdc creative competition present framing effect for both younger and older adults. Clearly, older adults can use analytic processes that enable them to base their decisions on a problem#x02019;s deeper structure, rather than on its superficial language. The current data are consistent with the resource allocation hypothesis proposed by Hess, Rosenberg, and Waters (2001). According to this hypothesis, because older adults have limited cognitive resources, they tend to rely on heuristic information processing in write a high school application essay me, order to conserve their mental energy for important tasks. Jcdc Creative Competition 2012. As a result, Hess and colleagues argued that older adults can perform as well as younger adults in a relatively low resource-demanding task when they are highly motivated to process information systematically. Our data fit with this explanation, if this decision situation can be thought of essay on the shawshank, as one making a low demand, in that older adults were more likely to show framing effects than younger adults because they tended to rely on jcdc writing competition heuristic information processing more than younger adults, but their performance improved up to the level of younger adults when they were encouraged to process information systematically. Our current findings have important practical implications for older adults#x02019; decision making, especially in medical decision domains.
This is write application essay a domain full of risky decisions that have to be made. Jcdc 2012. Thus, knowing that older adults are more vulnerable than younger adults to how decision alternatives are verbally presented (framed), medical practitioners may need to pay greater attention to essays, how they present medical information and treatment options when they communicate with elderly patients. However, our current finding that older adults#x02019; heightened susceptibility to verbal framing can be ameliorated by a simple justification manipulation suggests that a relatively easy, everyday solution may be available to older adults#x02014;along with others#x02014;to reduce some biases in choice. This research was supported by Grant R37 AGO4306 from the National Institute on jcdc creative writing 2012 Aging. We thank all the people who helped us in the data collection and entry processes of this project, including Rachelle Ta-Min, Ursula Wiprzycka, Ji-A Min, and many others.