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awa essay topics We all know that the essays on the GMAT are scored separately and that the schools don’t care as much about the essay scores. We also know we have to write the property essays first, before we get to the more important quant and resume tech skills verbal sections, so we don’t want to essay, use up too much brain-power on the essays. Still, we can’t just bomb the essay section; the schools do care about the essays somewhat. So how do we do a good enough job on pre-dissertation research fellowship, the essays without expending so much energy that we’re negatively affected during the of public essay multiple-choice portion of the test? We need to develop a template, an organizational framework on which to pre-dissertation research fellowship, “hang” our writing. The template will not, of course, tell us exactly what to write. For that, we need the actual essay prompt, which we won’t see until we take the test.
We can, however, determine how to organize the information ahead of time, as well as the vandalism of public property general kinds of messages we need to convey at various points throughout. Should Essay. The template should tell us: how many paragraphs to of public property essay, use the citing apa primary purpose of property essay, each of those paragraphs the kinds of information that need to be conveyed in should be a each paragraph. The template will vary a little bit from of public property person to person; the important thing is to should be a planet, have a consistent template for yourself that you’ve worked out in advance of the essay official test . In addition, we will need slightly different templates for the two different kinds of essays, so take note of the differences below. As a general rule, essays should have either four or five paragraphs total. The first paragraph is always the introduction, the last paragraph is always the conclusion, and the body (middle) paragraphs are for the examples we choose to use. Each paragraph should contain certain things; these are listed in the below sections. Citing Dissertation. The information does not need to be presented in the given order below, though; just make sure that each paragraph does contain the necessary information in some sort of clear and logical order. Property Essay. In addition, the information listed below is the pre-dissertation fellowship minimum necessary info; you can certainly add more where appropriate. Vandalism. summarize the issue state a thesis acknowledge that the other side does have some merit introduce your examples.
The first paragraph should contain a brief summary of the issue at hand in your own words (don't just repeat what the essay prompt said). For an Argument essay, briefly summarize the conclusion of the given argument. For the Issue essay, briefly summarize the issue upon which the prompt has asked you to citing dissertation apa, convey your opinion. For either, you don’t need more than a one to two sentence summary. The first paragraph should also contain a thesis statement. The thesis is typically one sentence and conveys to vandalism essay, the reader your overall message or point for the essay that you wrote. For the apa Argument essay, you can write most of your thesis sentence before you get to the test! You already know that the property essay Argument will contain flaws, and that you will be discussing how those flaws hurt the author’s conclusion. Guess what?
That’s your thesis! “While the research papers wellness programs argument does have some merit, there are several serious flaws which serve to undermine the validity of the author’s conclusion that XYZ.” DON’T USE THAT EXACT SENTENCE. They’re going to get suspicious if hundreds of people use the same sentence. (Besides, that’s my sentence. Of Public Property. Come up with your own!) Note the opening clause: “While the argument does have some merit.” This is what’s called “acknowledging the pre-dissertation research fellowship other side.” We don’t say, “Hey, your argument is completely terrible! There’s nothing good about it at all!” We acknowledge that some parts may be okay, or some people may feel differently, but our position is that the flaws are the vandalism of public property essay most important issue (that is, our thesis is the most important thing). On the Issue essay, you won’t be able to write your thesis statement ahead of time, but you do know you’ll have to do two things: (1) establish one clear position for yourself and (2) acknowledge the apa other side. (“While it’s certainly true that some people like Pepsi, more people prefer Coke.”) Notice one other thing that I don’t say: I don’t say “I think [blah blah thesis blah].” I state my thesis as though it is vandalism, fact and reasonable people surely agree with me.
That’s a hallmark of a persuasive essay. Finally, the first paragraph needs to introduce whatever examples we’re going to use in research fellowship the body paragraphs below. Vandalism Essay. Don’t launch into the examples fully; that will come later. You can choose to research, use either 2 or 3 body paragraphs. (I use 2 body paragraphs, personally. Vandalism Of Public Essay. Remember, we just need to be “good enough!”) introduce one flaw explain why it is a flaw suggest ways to fix the flaw. introduce one real-world example give enough detail for reader to understand relevance of persausive outsourcing is wrong, example show how example supports your thesis. The body of an essay is where we support our thesis statement. For the argument essay, your support will come from the prompt itself: brainstorm several flaws from the argument (try to find the biggest, most glaring flaws). Each flaw gets its own paragraph, so you’ll need either two or three, depending upon how many body paragraphs you want to write.
Explicitly explain why this flaw makes the conclusion less valid in some way, and then discuss how the author might fix that flaw. Of Public. For example, let’s say that an argument claims that firing half of a company’s employees will help the company to reduce costs and therefore become more profitable. While it’s certainly true that chopping half of your payroll will reduce costs, it doesn’t necessarily follow that the company will become more profitable! That loss of personnel may reduce productivity, hurt morale of the remaining employees, and so on. The author of such an argument could bolster the pre-dissertation research fellowship claim by, for example, showing evidence that half of the property employees are fully redundant and firing them wouldn’t affect the company adversely (if such evidence actually exists, of pre-dissertation research fellowship, course!). For the vandalism of public issue essay, your support will come from your brain: you’ll have to brainstorm some real-life example ( something that actually happened in the past ) in order to support your thesis.
That example could be something from your own life (work history, school, friend of a friend) or from the broader world (business, history, and so on). Stating that Coke’s market share is higher than Pepsi’s, for example, would bolster your claim that more people prefer Coke. There is no inherent advantage to a personal example versus a broader world example, but if you use a personal example, be sure to provide enough detail that the reader can understand the relevance. Tech Skills. When you use real-world examples that the vandalism readers are likely to know, you don’t have to why pluto be a essay, worry about, for example, explaining what Coke and Pepsi are. Finally, make sure to tie your example specifically back to your original thesis. Don’t make the reader connect the vandalism of public dots: tell him or her exactly how this example supports your thesis. re-state your thesis (using new words) re-acknowledge the other side (using new words) briefly summarize how your examples supported your thesis (using new words) minimum 3 sentences; ideally 4 to 5. Are you noticing a theme within the persausive on why outsourcing above bullet points? Basically, the vandalism property essay conclusion paragraph isn’t going to contain much new information. Pre-dissertation Research Fellowship. It’s a conclusion; the major points should already have been made earlier in vandalism property essay the essay. Papers Programs. What you’re doing now is tying everything together in of public property one neat package: yes, the “other side” has some merit, but here’s my point-of-view and, by the way, I proved my case using these examples. Before you go into the real test, you should have a fully developed template, so that all you have to research papers on employee wellness, do is come up with your two examples and your thesis statement, and of public property essay then “hang” your words on your framework.
Practice with the above as a starting point until you develop something with which you’re comfortable. Don’t forget to essays final project comprehensive analysis, leave some time to essay, proof your essay; it’s okay to have a few typos, but systematic errors will lower your score.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Existentialism is a catch-all term for those philosophers who consider the nature of the human condition as a key philosophical problem and who share the view that this problem is best addressed through ontology. This very broad definition will be clarified by discussing seven key themes that existentialist thinkers address. Those philosophers considered existentialists are mostly from the vandalism of public property, continent of Europe, and date from the 19 th and 20 th centuries. Outside philosophy, the existentialist movement is probably the most well-known philosophical movement, and at least two of its members are among the most famous philosophical personalities and widely read philosophical authors. Research Fellowship. It has certainly had considerable influence outside philosophy, for example on psychological theory and on the arts. Within philosophy, though, it is safe to say that this loose movement considered as a whole has not had a great impact, although individuals or ideas counted within it remain important. Of Public Property Essay. Moreover, most of the philosophers conventionally grouped under this heading either never used, or actively disavowed, the term 'existentialist'.
Even Sartre himself once said: “Existentialism? I don’t know what that is.” So, there is a case to be made that the term – insofar as it leads us to ignore what is distinctive about philosophical positions and to conflate together significantly different ideas – does more harm than good. In this article, however, it is should planet essay assumed that something sensible can be said about existentialism as a loosely defined movement. The article has three sections. First, we outline a set of vandalism of public property, themes that define, albeit very broadly, existentialist concerns. This is done with reference to the historical context of existentialism, which will help us to on why outsourcing understand why certain philosophical problems and methods were considered so important. Second, we discuss individually six philosophers who are arguably its central figures, stressing in of public essay, these discussions the ways in resume tech skills, which these philosophers approached existentialist themes in distinctive ways. These figures, and many of the others we mention, have full length articles of their own within the vandalism of public property, Encyclopedia . Finally, we look very briefly at the influence of existentialism, especially outside philosophy. Although a highly diverse tradition of thought, seven themes can be identified that provide some sense of overall unity. Here, these themes will be briefly introduced; they can then provide us with an intellectual framework within which to discuss exemplary figures within the history of existentialism.
Philosophy should not be thought of primarily either as an attempt to investigate and understand the resume tech skills, self or the world, or as a special occupation that concerns only a few. Rather, philosophy must be thought of as fully integrated within life. To be sure, there may need to be professional philosophers, who develop an elaborate set of methods and vandalism of public essay concepts (Sartre makes this point frequently) but life can be lived philosophically without a technical knowledge of philosophy. Existentialist thinkers tended to identify two historical antecedents for this notion. First, the ancient Greeks, and particularly the figure of Socrates but also the Stoics and Epicureans. Socrates was not only non-professional, but in his pursuit of the good life he tended to eschew the formation of a 'system' or 'theory', and his teachings took place often in public spaces. In this, the existentialists were hardly unusual. Essays Final Comprehensive Argument. In the 19 th and 20 th centuries, the rapid expansion of industrialisation and advance in technology were often seen in terms of an alienation of the human from nature or from a properly natural way of living (for example, thinkers of German and English romanticism). The second influence on thinking of property essay, philosophy as a way of life was German Idealism after Kant. Partly as a response to the 18 th century Enlightenment, and under the influence of the Neoplatonists, Schelling and Hegel both thought of philosophy as an activity that is an integral part of the history of human beings, rather than outside of life and the world, looking on. Later in the 19 th century, Marx famously criticised previous philosophy by saying that the point of philosophy is pre-dissertation research not to know things – even to vandalism essay know things about pre-dissertation research fellowship activity – but to change them.
The concept of of public property essay, philosophy as a way of life manifests itself in existentialist thought in a number of ways. Let us give several examples, to which we will return in the sections that follow. First, the resume, existentialists often undertook a critique of modern life in terms of the specialisation of vandalism of public essay, both manual and intellectual labour. Specialisation included philosophy. One consequence of this is that many existentialist thinkers experimented with different styles or genres of writing in order to escape the effects of this specialisation. Second, a notion that we can call 'immanence': philosophy studies life from the inside. For Kierkegaard, for example, the fundamental truths of my existence are not representations – not, that is, ideas, propositions or symbols the meaning of which can be separated from their origin.
Rather, the truths of existence are immediately lived, felt and acted. Likewise, for why pluto, Nietzsche and Heidegger, it is essential to recognise that the philosopher investigating human existence is, him or herself, an existing human. Third, the nature of property essay, life itself is a perennial existentialist concern and, more famously (in Heidegger and in Camus), also the significance of death. A key idea here is that human existence is in some way 'on its own'; anxiety (or anguish) is the recognition of this fact. Anxiety here has two important implications. Why Pluto Planet. First, most generally, many existentialists tended to stress the significance of emotions or feelings, in so far as they were presumed to have a less culturally or intellectually mediated relation to one's individual and separate existence. This idea is found in Kierkegaard, as we mentioned above, and in Heidegger's discussion of 'mood'; it is also one reason why existentialism had an vandalism property essay influence on psychology. Second, anxiety also stands for a form of existence that is recognition of being on its own. What is meant by 'being on its own' varies among philosophers.
For example, it might mean the irrelevance (or even negative influence) of rational thought, moral values, or empirical evidence, when it comes to making fundamental decisions concerning one's existence. As we shall see, Kierkegaard sees Hegel's account of religion in essays final project comprehensive argument, terms of the history of absolute spirit as an vandalism property exemplary confusion of faith and reason. Alternatively, it might be a more specifically theological claim: the existence of a transcendent deity is not relevant to (or is positively detrimental to) such decisions (a view broadly shared by Nietzsche and Sartre). Finally, being on its own might signify the uniqueness of human existence, and thus the fact that it cannot understand itself in terms of other kinds of existence (Heidegger and Sartre). Related to anxiety is the concept of authenticity, which is let us say the existentialist spin on the Greek notion of essays final project argument, 'the good life'.
As we shall see, the authentic being would be able to recognise and affirm the vandalism of public essay, nature of existence (we shall shortly specify some of the aspects of this, such as absurdity and freedom). Not, though, recognise the nature of existence as an research on employee wellness intellectual fact, disengaged from life; but rather, the authentic being lives in accordance with this nature. The notion of authenticity is vandalism sometimes seen as connected to individualism. This is only reinforced by the contrast with a theme we will discuss below, that of the 'crowd'. Certainly, if authenticity involves 'being on one's own', then there would seem to be some kind of value in celebrating and sustaining one's difference and independence from papers wellness others.
However, many existentialists see individualism as a historical and cultural trend (for example Nietzsche), or dubious political value (Camus), rather than a necessary component of authentic existence. Individualism tends to vandalism property obscure the particular types of collectivity that various existentialists deem important. For many existentialists, the conditions of the modern world make authenticity especially difficult. For example, many existentialists would join other philosophers (such as the Frankfurt School) in condemning an instrumentalist conception of reason and value. The utilitarianism of essays final project comprehensive, Mill measured moral value and justice also in terms of the vandalism of public property essay, consequences of actions. Later liberalism would seek to absorb nearly all functions of political and social life under the heading of economic performance. Evaluating solely in terms of the measurable outcomes of production was seen as reinforcing the secularisation of the institutions of political, social or economic life; and reinforcing also the abandonment of any broader sense of the spiritual dimension (such an idea is found acutely in Emerson, and research on employee wellness programs is akin to the concerns of vandalism of public property essay, Kierkegaard). Existentialists such as Martin Heidegger, Hanna Arendt or Gabriel Marcel viewed these social movements in terms of a narrowing of the possibilities of human thought to the instrumental or technological. This narrowing involved thinking of the world in terms of pre-dissertation research, resources, and thinking of all human action as a making, or indeed as a machine-like 'function'. The next key theme is vandalism property freedom.
Freedom can usefully be linked to the concept of anguish, because my freedom is in part defined by the isolation of my decisions from any determination by a deity, or by previously existent values or knowledge. Many existentialists identified the citing, 19 th and 20 th centuries as experiencing a crisis of values. Essay. This might be traced back to familiar reasons such as an increasingly secular society, or the rise of research, scientific or philosophical movements that questioned traditional accounts of vandalism property, value (for example Marxism or Darwinism), or the shattering experience of two world wars and the phenomenon of mass genocide. It is important to citing apa note, however, that for existentialism these historical conditions do not create the problem of anguish in the face of vandalism, freedom, but merely cast it into higher relief. Likewise, freedom entails something like responsibility, for myself and for my actions. Given that my situation is should planet one of being on its own – recognised in anxiety – then both my freedom and my responsibility are absolute. The isolation that we discussed above means that there is nothing else that acts through me, or that shoulders my responsibility.
Likewise, unless human existence is to vandalism property essay be understood as arbitrarily changing moment to pre-dissertation moment, this freedom and responsibility must stretch across time. Thus, when I exist as an vandalism property authentically free being, I assume responsibility for my whole life, for a ‘project’ or a ‘commitment’. We should note here that many of the existentialists take on a broadly Kantian notion of freedom: freedom as autonomy . This means that freedom, rather than being randomness or arbitrariness, consists in the binding of oneself to a law, but a law that is given by on employee, the self in recognition of its responsibilities. This borrowing from Kant, however, is heavily qualified by the next theme. The next common theme we shall call ‘situatedness’. Although my freedom is absolute, it always takes place in a particular context. My body and its characteristics, my circumstances in vandalism of public property, a historical world, and my past, all weigh upon freedom. Essays Final Project Comprehensive Analysis. This is vandalism of public property essay what makes freedom meaningful. Suppose I tried to exist as free, while pretending to be in abstraction from the situation. In that case I will have no idea what possibilities are open to research me and what choices need to be made, here and of public property essay now.
In such a case, my freedom will be naive or illusory. This concrete notion of citing, freedom has its philosophical genesis in Hegel, and is generally contrasted to the pure rational freedom described by Kant. Situatedness is related to a notion we discussed above under the heading of philosophy as a way of life: the necessity of viewing or understanding life and existence from the of public essay, ‘inside’. For example, many 19 th century intellectuals were interested in ancient Greece, Rome, the on employee programs, Medieval period, or the orient, as alternative models of a less spoiled, more integrated form of life. Property. Nietzsche, to be sure, shared these interests, but he did so not uncritically: because the human condition is characterised by citing dissertation apa, being historically situated, it cannot simply turn back the essay, clock or decide all at once to be other than it is (Sartre especially shares this view). Heidegger expresses a related point in this way: human existence cannot be abstracted from its world because being-in-the-world is part of the ontological structure of that existence. Fellowship. Many existentialists take my concretely individual body, and the specific type of vandalism property essay, life that my body lives, as a primary fact about me (for example, Nietzsche, Scheler or Merleau-Ponty). I must also be situated socially: each of my acts says something about how I view others but, reciprocally, each of their acts is a view about what I am. My freedom is always situated with respect to the judgements of others. This particular notion comes from Hegel’s analysis of ‘recognition’, and is found especially in pre-dissertation research fellowship, Sartre, de Beauvoir and Jaspers. Situatedness in general also has an important philosophical antecedent in Marx: economic and political conditions are not contingent features with respect to vandalism property universal human nature, but condition that nature from the persausive on why, ground up.
Although, of vandalism essay, course, existentialism takes its name from the philosophical theme of 'existence', this does not entail that there is research papers on employee homogeneity in the manner existence is to be understood. One point on which there is vandalism of public property agreement, though, is that the existence with which we should be concerned here is not just any existent thing, but human existence . There is thus an important difference between distinctively human existence and anything else, and human existence is not to be understood on the model of things , that is, as objects of knowledge. One might think that this is an old idea, rooted in Plato's distinction between matter and soul, or Descartes' between extended and thinking things. But these distinctions appear to be just differences between two types of things. Descartes in particular, however, is often criticised by the existentialists for subsuming both under the heading 'substance', and thus treating what is distinctive in human existence as indeed a thing or object, albeit one with different properties. (Whether the existentialist characterisation of Plato or Descartes is accurate is pre-dissertation a different question.) The existentialists thus countered the vandalism, Platonic or Cartesian conception with a model that resembles more the Aristotelian as developed in the Nichomachean Ethics . The latter idea arrives in existentialist thought filtered through Leibniz and Spinoza and tech skills the notion of a striving for existence. Equally important is the elevation of the practical above the theoretical in German Idealists. Particularly in Kant, who stressed the primacy of the 'practical', and then in Fichte and early Schelling, we find the notion that human existence is vandalism of public action . Accordingly, in Nietzsche and Sartre we find the research fellowship, notion that the human being is all and only what that being does. My existence consists of forever bringing myself into vandalism of public essay, being – and, correlatively, fleeing from the dead, inert thing that is the totality of my past actions. Tech. Although my acts are free, I am not free not to vandalism of public property essay act; thus existence is characterised also by 'exigency' (Marcel). Resume Tech. For many existentialists, authentic existence involves a certain tension be recognised and lived through, but not resolved: this tension might be between the animal and the rational (important in Nietzsche) or between facticity and transcendence (Sartre and de Beauvoir). In the 19 th and 20 th centuries, the human sciences (such as psychology, sociology or economics) were coming to be recognised as powerful and vandalism property essay legitimate sciences.
To some extend at least their assumptions and methods seemed to be borrowed from the natural sciences. While philosophers such as Dilthey and later Gadamer were concerned to show that the human sciences had to have a distinctive method, the existentialists were inclined to persausive on why outsourcing is wrong go further. The free, situated human being is not an object of knowledge in vandalism of public, the sense the human always exists as the project analysis, possibility of transcending any knowledge of it. There is of public a clear relation between such an idea and papers on employee wellness programs the notion of the 'transcendence of the other' found in the ethical phenomenology of Emmanuel Levinas. Among the most famous ideas associated with existentialism is that of 'absurdity'.
Human existence might be described as 'absurd' in one of the following senses. First, many existentialists argued that nature as a whole has no design, no reason for existing. Although the of public, natural world can apparently be understood by physical science or metaphysics, this might be better thought of as 'description' than either understanding or explanation. Thus, the achievements of the natural sciences also empty nature of value and meaning. Unlike a created cosmos, for why pluto be a, example, we cannot expect the scientifically described cosmos to answer our questions concerning value or meaning. Moreover, such description comes at the cost of a profound falsification of nature: namely, the positing of ideal entities such as 'laws of vandalism of public property essay, nature', or the conflation of programs, all reality under a single model of being. Human beings can and should become profoundly aware of this lack of reason and the impossibility of an immanent understanding of it. Camus, for example, argues that the basic scene of vandalism of public, human existence is its confrontation with this mute irrationality. A second meaning of the absurd is fellowship this: my freedom will not only property, be undetermined by knowledge or reason, but from the point of view of the skills, latter my freedom will even appear absurd. Absurdity is thus closely related to the theme of 'being on its own', which we discussed above under the heading of anxiety.
Even if I choose to follow a law that I have given myself, my choice of law will appear absurd, and likewise will my continuously reaffirmed choice to follow it. Third, human existence as action is doomed to always destroy itself. A free action, once done, is no longer free; it has become an aspect of the world, a thing . The absurdity of human existence then seems to lie in the fact that in vandalism of public, becoming myself (a free existence) I must be what I am not (a thing). If I do not face up to this absurdity, and choose to dissertation be or pretend to be thing-like, I exist inauthentically (the terms in this formulation are Sartre's). Existentialism generally also carries a social or political dimension. Insofar as he or she is authentic, the freedom of the human being will show a certain 'resolution' or 'commitment', and this will involve also the being – and particularly the authentic being – of others. Property. For example, Nietzsche thus speaks of his (or Zarathustra's) work in be a, aiding the transformation of the human, and property there is also in be a planet essay, Nietzsche a striking analysis of the concept of friendship; for Heidegger, there must be an authentic mode of being-with others, although he does not develop this idea at length; the social and political aspect of authentic commitment is much more clear in Sartre, de Beauvoir and Camus. That is the positive side of the social or political dimension.
However, leading up to this positive side, there is a description of the vandalism, typical forms that inauthentic social or political existence takes. Many existentialists employ terms such as 'crowd', 'horde' (Scheler) or the 'masses' (Jose Ortega y Gasset). Essays Final Comprehensive Analysis. Nietzsche's deliberately provocative expression, 'the herd', portrays the bulk of humanity not only as animal, but as docile and vandalism of public property domesticated animals. Notice that these are all collective terms: inauthenticity manifests itself as de-individuated or faceless. Instead of being formed authentically in freedom and anxiety, values are just accepted from others because ‘that is what everybody does’. These terms often carry a definite historical resonance, embodying a critique of essays final comprehensive argument analysis, specifically modern modes of of public property essay, human existence. All of the persausive essays outsourcing is wrong, following might be seen as either causes or symptoms of a world that is 'fallen' or 'broken' (Marcel): the technology of of public, mass communication (Nietzsche is particularly scathing about newspapers and journalists; in Two Ages , Kierkegaard says something very similar), empty religious observances, the specialisation of labour and social roles, urbanisation and industrialisation. The theme of the crowd poses a question also to essays outsourcing the positive social or political dimension of vandalism property essay, existentialism: how could a collective form of existence ever be anything other than inauthentic?
The 19 th and 20 th century presented a number of mass political ideologies which might be seen as posing a particularly challenging environment for citing apa, authentic and free existence. For example, nationalism came in for criticism particularly by Nietzsche. Socialism and communism: after WWII, Sartre was certainly a communist, but even then unafraid to criticise both the French communist party and the Soviet Union for rigid or inadequately revolutionary thinking. Democracy: Aristotle in book 5 of of public, his Politics distinguishes between democracy and papers on employee wellness programs ochlocracy, which latter essentially means rule by those incapable of ruling even themselves. Many existentialists would identify the latter with the American and especially French concept of 'democracy'. Vandalism Of Public. Nietzsche and Ortega y Gasset both espoused a broadly aristocratic criterion for social and political leadership. 2. Key Existentialist Philosophers.
a. Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Kierkegaard was many things: philosopher, religious writer, satirist, psychologist, journalist, literary critic and should be a essay generally considered the ‘father’ of vandalism essay, existentialism. Being born (in Copenhagen) to a wealthy family enabled him to research programs devote his life to the pursuits of his intellectual interests as well as to distancing himself from the ‘everyday man’ of his times. Kierkegaard’s most important works are pseudonymous, written under fictional names, often very obviously fictional. The issue of pseudonymity has been variously interpreted as a literary device, a personal quirk or as an illustration of the constant tension between the philosophical truth and existential or personal truth. We have already seen that for the existentialists it is of equal importance what one says and the way in which something is said. This forms part of the of public essay, attempt to return to a more authentic way of research, philosophising, firstly exemplified by the Greeks. In a work like Either/Or (primarily a treatise against the Hegelians) theoretical reflections are followed by reflections on how to property seduce girls. The point is to citing dissertation stress the distance between the anonymously and logically produced truths of the logicians and the personal truths of of public property, existing individuals. Every pseudonymous author is why pluto should planet a symbol for an existing individual and at vandalism property, times his very name is the key to the mysteries of his existence (like in the case of Johanes de Silentio , fictional author of Fear and Trembling , where the mystery of Abraham’s actions cannot be told, being a product of and belonging to silence). Kierkegaard has been associated with a notion of truth as subjective (or personal); but what does this mean?
The issue is linked with his notorious confrontation with the Danish Church and the academic environment of his days. Kierkegaard’s work takes place against the background of an academia dominated by Hegelian dialectics and on why a society which reduces the vandalism of public, communication with the divine to the everyday observance of the ritualistic side of an institutionalized Christianity. Hegel is for persausive essays is wrong, Kierkegaard his arch-enemy not only because of what he writes but also what he represents. Hegel is guilty for Kierkegaard because he reduced the living truth of vandalism property, Christianity (the fact that God suffered and died on the Cross) to just another moment, which necessarily will be overcome, in the dialectical development of the Spirit. While Hegel treats “God” as a Begriff (a concept), for Kierkegaard the should be a planet essay, truth of vandalism property, Christianity signifies the research papers on employee wellness programs, very paradoxicality of faith: that is, that it is possible for the individual to go beyond the vandalism, ‘ethical’ and nevertheless or rather because of this very act of persausive essays is wrong, disobedience to be loved by ‘God’. Famously, for Hegel ‘all that is real is rational’ – where rationality means the historically articulated, dialectical progression of of public property, Spirit – whereas for Kierkegaard the suspension of rationality is the very secret of Christianity. Against the cold logic of the essays project comprehensive argument analysis, Hegelian system Kierkegaard seeks “a truth which is truth for me” (Kierkegaard 1996:32). Christianity in particular represents the attempt to of public property essay offer one’s life to the service of the divine. This cannot be argued, it can only be lived. While a theologian will try to argue for the validity of his positions by arguing and counter-arguing, a true Christian will try to live his life the way Jesus lived it. This evidently marks the continuation of the essays comprehensive analysis, Hellenic idea of philosophy as a way of life, exemplified in the person of Socrates who did not write treatises, but who died for his ideas.
Before the logical concepts of the theologians (in the of public property, words of Martin Heidegger who was hugely influenced by Kierkegaard) “man can neither fall to resume skills his knees in awe nor can he play music and dance before this god” (Heidegger 2002:42). The idea of essay, ‘subjective truth’ will have serious consequences to the philosophical understanding of man. Traditionally defined as animale rationale (the rational animal) by Aristotle and for a long time worshiped as such by generations of outsourcing is wrong, philosophical minds, Kierkegaard comes now to redefine the human as the ‘passionate animal’. What counts in vandalism property essay, man is the intensity of his emotions and his willingness to research fellowship believe ( contra the once all powerful reason) in vandalism, that which cannot be understood. The opening up by Kierkegaard of this terra incognita of man’s inner life will come to papers on employee wellness programs play a major role for vandalism property, later existentialists (most importantly for Nietzsche) and will bring to light the failings and the weaknesses of an over-optimistic (because modelled after the Natural sciences) model of philosophy which was taught to talk a lot concerning the ‘truth’ of the human, when all it understood about the human was a mutilated version. In the Garden of citing dissertation, Eden, Adam and Eve lived in a state of innocence in communication with God and in harmony with their physical environment. The expulsion from the vandalism essay, Garden opened up a wide range of new possibilities for them and thus the problem of anxiety arose.
Adam (the Hebrew word for citing dissertation, man) is now free to of public essay determine through his actions the route of things. Resume Skills. Naturally, there is a tension here. Vandalism Of Public Property. The human, created in pre-dissertation fellowship, God’s image, is an vandalism infinite being. Like God he also can choose and act according to his will. Simultaneously, though, he is a finite being since he is restricted by his body, particular socioeconomic conditions and so forth. This tension between the finite and infinite is the source of anxiety. Research. But unlike a Hegelian analysis, Kierkegaard does not look for a way out from anxiety; on the contrary he stresses its positive role in the flourishing of the human. As he characteristically puts it: “Because he is a synthesis, he can be in property, anxiety; and the more profoundly he is in anxiety, the greater is the man” (Kierkegaard 1980:154). Research Papers On Employee Wellness. The prioritization of anxiety as a fundamental trait of the human being is a typical existentialist move, eager to assert the positive role of vandalism, emotions for human life.
Perhaps the why pluto should be a essay, most famous work of Kierkegaard was Fear and Trembling , a short book which exhibits many of the issues raised by essay, him throughout his career. Fear and Trembling retells the story of the attempted sacrifice of Isaac by his father Abraham. God tells Abraham that in order to prove his faith he has to sacrifice his only son. Abraham obeys, but at the last moment God intervenes and saves Isaac. Apa. What is the moral of the story? According to our moral beliefs, shouldn’t Abraham refuse to execute God’s vicious plan? Isn’t one of the of public property, fundamental beliefs of Christianity the respect to the life of other?
The answer is naturally affirmative. Abraham should refuse God, and apa he should respect the ethical law. Then Abraham would be in a good relation with the Law itself as in the expression ‘a law abiding citizen’. On the contrary what Abraham tries to achieve is a personal relation with the author of the moral law. This author is neither a symbolic figure nor an abstract idea; he is someone with a name. Vandalism Property. The name of ’God’ is the unpronounceable Tetragrammaton (YHVE), the unpronounceability indicates the simultaneous closeness and distance of the great Other. Persausive On Why Is Wrong. The Christian God then, the author of the moral law at his will suspends the law and demands his unlawful wish be obeyed.
Jacques Derrida notes that the temptation is now for Abraham the ethical law itself (Derrida 1998:162): he must resist ethics, this is the mad logic of God. The story naturally raises many problems. Is not such a subjectivist model of truth and religion plainly dangerous? What if someone was to support his acts of of public property, violence as a command of God? Kierkegaard’s response would be to suggest that it is only because Abraham loved Isaac with all his heart that the sacrifice could take place. “He must love Isaac with his whole soul. only then can he sacrifice him” (Kierkegaard 1983:74). On Why Outsourcing Is Wrong. Abraham’s faith is proved by the strength of his love for his son. However, this doesn’t fully answer the question of legitimacy, even if we agree that Abraham believed that God loved him so that he would somehow spare him. Kierkegaard also differentiates between the act of Abraham and the act of a tragic hero (like Agamemnon sacrificing his daughter Iphigenia). The tragic hero’s act is a product of calculation.
What is better to do? What would be more beneficial? Abraham stands away from all sorts of calculations, he stands alone, that is, free in front of the horror religiosus , the price and the reward of faith. b. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) as an Existentialist Philosopher. “I know my lot. Some day my name will be linked to the memory of something monstrous, of a crisis as yet unprecedented on earth. ” (Nietzsche 2007:88).
Remarkably, what in 1888 sounded like megalomania came some years later to be realized. The name ‘Nietzsche’ has been linked with an array of historical events, philosophical concepts and widespread popular legends. Above all, Nietzsche has managed somehow to of public property essay associate his name with the turmoil of a crisis. For a while this crisis was linked to the events of WWII. The exploitation of his teaching by the Nazi ideologues (notably Alfred Rosenberg and Alfred Baeumler), although utterly misdirected, arguably had its source in Nietzsche’s own “aristocratic radicalism”.
More generally, the crisis refers to the prospect of dissertation, a future lacking of any meaning. Vandalism Property. This is a common theme for all the existentialists to be sure. The prospect of millennia of nihilism (the devaluation of the pre-dissertation, highest values) inaugurates for Nietzsche the era in which the human itself, for the first time in its history, is vandalism of public property called to give meaning both to its own existence and to the existence of the world. This is an event of a cataclysmic magnitude, from now on there are neither guidelines to be followed, lighthouses to direct us, and papers on employee wellness no right answers but only experiments to be conducted with unknown results. Many existentialists, in their attempt to differentiate the value of individual existence from the alienating effects of the masses, formed an uneasy relation with the value of the essay, ‘everyday man’. Programs. The ‘common’ man was thought to be lacking in will , taste in matter of aesthetics, and individuality in the sense that the assertion of vandalism, his existence comes exclusively from his participation in larger groups and from the ‘herd’ mentality with which these groups infuse their members.
Nietzsche believed that men in society are divided and ordered according to their willingness and capacity to participate in a life of spiritual and cultural transformation. Certainly not everyone wishes this participation and Nietzsche’s condemnation of those unwilling to challenge their fundamental beliefs is harsh; however it would be a mistake to suggest that Nietzsche thought their presence dispensable. Citing Dissertation Apa. In various aphorisms he stresses the importance of the ‘common’ as a necessary prerequisite for both the growth and of public the value of the ‘exceptional’. Fellowship. Such an idea clashes with our ‘modern’ sensitivities (themselves a product of a particular training). However, one has to vandalism of public property essay recognize that there are no philosophers without presuppositions, and that Nietzsche’s insistence on the value of the exceptional marks his own beginning and his own understanding of the mission of thought.
Despite the dubious politics that the crisis of meaning gave rise to, the crisis itself is tech skills only an after-effect of a larger and deeper challenge that Nietzsche’s work identifies and poses. For Nietzsche the crisis of vandalism property essay, meaning is inextricably linked to the crisis of religious consciousness in the West. Whereas for final comprehensive, Kierkegaard the problem of meaning was to be resolved through the individual’s relation to the Divine, for Nietzsche the militantly anti-Christian, the problem of meaning is rendered possible at all because of the demise of the Divine. As he explains in essay, The Genealogy of Morality , it is only after the tech, cultivation of truth as a value by the priest that truth comes to question its own value and function. What truth discovers is that at the ground of of public property, all truth lies an unquestionable faith in the value of truth. Christianity is destroyed when it is research on employee wellness pushed to tell the truth about itself, when the illusions of the old ideals are revealed. Vandalism Property. What is called ‘The death of God’ is also then the death of project, truth (though not of the value of truthfulness ); this is an of public event of immense consequences for the future. But one has to be careful here. Generations of readers, by concentrating on the event of the actual announcement of the 'death of God', have completely missed madman’s woeful mourning which follows the announcement. “‘Where is God?’ he cried; ‘I‘ll tell you! We have killed him – you and I! We are all his murderers. But how did we do this?
How were we able to drink up the citing, sea? Who gave us the sponge to wipe away the entire horizon? What were we doing when we unchained this earth from its sun? Where is essay it moving? Where are we moving to? Away from all suns?” (Nietzsche 2001:125).
The above sentences are very far from constituting a cheerful declaration: no one is happy here! Nietzsche’s atheism has nothing to do with the naive atheism of others (for example Sartre) who rush to affirm their freedom as if their petty individuality were able to fill the vast empty space left by the absence of God. Nietzsche is not naive and because he is not naive he is rather pessimistic. What the research wellness, death of God really announces is the demise of the human as we know it. One has to think of this break in the history of the human in Kantian terms.
Kant famously described Enlightenment as “man’s emergence from his self-incurred immaturity” (Kant 1991:54). Similarly Nietzsche believes that the of public property, demise of the divine could be the opportunity for the emergence of a being which derives the meaning of its existence from within itself and not from some authority external to tech it. If the vandalism of public essay, meaning of the human derived from God then, with the universe empty, man cannot take the place of the absent God. This empty space can only be filled by something greater and fuller, which in the Nietzschean jargon means the greatest unity of contradictory forces. That is the Ubermensch (Overhuman) which for Nietzsche signifies the attempt towards the cultural production of a human being which will be aware of why pluto should, his dual descent – from animality and vandalism of public property essay from rationality – without prioritizing either one, but keeping them in an agonistic balance so that through struggle new and exciting forms of human existence can be born. Nietzsche was by training a Klassische Philologe (the rough equivalent Anglosaxon would be an expert in classics – the texts of the ancient Greek and Roman authors). Should Planet Essay. Perhaps because of his close acquaintance with the ancient writers, he became sensitive to property essay a quite different understanding of final comprehensive, philosophical thinking to that of his contemporaries. For the Greeks, philosophical questioning takes place within the perspective of a certain choice of life. There is no ‘life’ and then quite separately the theoretical (theoria: from thea – view, and vandalism essay horan – to see) or 'from a distance' contemplation of research, phenomena. Philosophical speculation is the result of a certain way of life and the attempted justification of this life. Interestingly Kant encapsulates this attitude in the following passage: “When will you finally begin to live virtuously?’ said Plato to an old man who told him he was attending classes on virtue.
The point is not always to speculate, but also ultimately to think about vandalism applying our knowledge. Today, however, he who lives in conformity with what he teaches is taken for a dreamer” (Kant in Hadot 2002:xiii). We have to understand Nietzsche’s relation to pre-dissertation philosophy within this context not only because it illustrates a stylistically different contemplation but because it demonstrates an altogether different way of property essay, philosophizing. Thus in Twilight of the Idols Nietzsche accuses philosophers for their ‘Egyptism’, the fact that they turn everything into research papers wellness, a concept under evaluation. Vandalism. “All that philosophers have been handling for thousands of years is conceptual mummies; nothing real has ever left their hands alive” (Nietzsche 1998:16). Philosophical concepts are valuable insofar as they serve a flourishing life, not as academic exercises. Under the new model of philosophy the research on employee programs, old metaphysical and moral questions are to be replaced by new questions concerning history, genealogy, environmental conditions and so forth. Let us take a characteristic passage from vandalism essay 1888: “I am interested in a question on which the ‘salvation of humanity’ depends more than on any curio of the theologians: the citing dissertation apa, question of nutrition . For ease of use, one can put it in the following terms: ‘how do you personally have to vandalism essay nourish yourself in research fellowship, order to vandalism of public essay attain your maximum of strength, of pre-dissertation fellowship, virtu in the Renaissance style, of moraline-free virtue?” (Nietzsche 2007:19). What is Nietzsche telling us here? Two things: firstly that, following the tradition of property essay, Spinoza, the movement from transcendence to research fellowship immanence passes through the rehabilitation of the body. To say that, however, does not imply a simple-minded materialism. When Spinoza tells “nobody as yet has determined the limits of the body’s capabilities” (Spinoza 2002: 280) he is property not writing about something like bodily strength but to the possibility of an emergence of a body liberated from the sedimentation of culture and memory.
This archetypical body is indeed as yet unknown and we stand in ignorance of its abilities. The second thing that Nietzsche is tech telling us in the above passage is that this new immanent philosophy necessarily requires a new ethics. One has to vandalism of public essay be clear here because of the many misunderstandings of Nietzschean ethics. Nietzsche is primarily a philosopher of research on employee, ethics but ethics here refers to the possible justification of a way of vandalism property, life, which way of life in essays final project comprehensive analysis, turn justifies human existence on earth. For Nietzsche, ethics does not refer to moral codes and guidelines on how to live one’s life.
Morality, which Nietzsche rejects, refers to of public property essay the obsessive need (a need or an instinct can also be learned according to Nietzsche) of the human to preserve its own species and to essays comprehensive regard its species as higher than the of public, other animals. In short morality is arrogant . A Nietzschean ethics is an ethics of modesty. It places the human back where it belongs, among the other animals. However to say that is not to equate the human with the animal. Unlike non-human animals men are products of history that is to say products of memory.
That is their burden and their responsibility. In the Genealogy of Morality Nietzsche explains morality as a system aiming at the taming of the human animal. Apa. Morality’s aim is the elimination of the creative power of animal instincts and the establishment of a life protected within the cocoon of ascetic ideals. These 'ideals' are all those values and ideologies made to protect man against the danger of nihilism, the state in which man finds no answer to the question of his existence. Morality clings to the preservation of the species ‘man’; morality stubbornly denies the very possibility of an open-ended future for humans. If we could summarize Nietzsche’s philosophical anthropology in a few words, we would say that for vandalism of public property essay, Nietzsche it is necessary to pre-dissertation fellowship attempt (there are no guarantees here) to think of the human not as an end-in-itself but only essay, as a means to something “. Citing Apa. perfect, completely finished, happy, powerful, triumphant, that still leaves something to fear!” (Nietzsche 2007:25).
c. Vandalism Of Public Property Essay. Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Heidegger exercised an unparalleled influence on modern thought. Without knowledge of his work recent developments in citing, modern European philosophy (Sartre, Gadamer, Arendt, Marcuse, Derrida, Foucault et al.) simply do not make sense. He remains notorious for his involvement with National Socialism in the 1930s. Outside European philosophy, Heidegger is only occasionally taken seriously, and is sometimes actually ridiculed (famously the Oxford philosopher A.J. Ayer called him a ‘charlatan’). In 1945 in Paris Jean-Paul Sartre gave a public lecture with the title ‘Existentialism is a Humanism’ where he defended the priority of action and the position that it is property a man’s actions which define his humanity.
In 1946, Jean Beaufret in a letter to Heidegger poses a number of questions concerning the link between humanism and the recent developments of existentialist philosophy in France. Heidegger’s response is a letter to fellowship Beaufret which in 1947 is published in a book form with the property essay, title ‘Letter on Humanism’. There he repudiates any possible connection of his philosophy with the on why is wrong, existentialism of Sartre. The question for us here is the following: Is it possible, given Heidegger’s own repudiation of existentialism, still to characterise Heidegger’s philosophy as 'existentialist'? The answer here is that Heidegger can be classified as an existentialist thinker despite all his differences from Sartre. Our strategy is to stress Heidegger’s connection with some key existentialist concerns, which we introduced above under the vandalism essay, labels ‘Existence’, ‘Anxiety’ and the ‘Crowd’. We have seen above that a principle concern of all existentialists was to affirm the priority of individual existence and to stress that human existence is to be investigated with methods other than those of the natural sciences. This is also one of Heidegger’s principle concerns.
His magnum opus Being and Time is an investigation into the meaning of Being as that manifests itself through the human being, Dasein. The sciences have repeatedly asked ‘What is a man?’ ‘What is a car?’ ‘What is an emotion?’ they have nevertheless failed – and because of the nature of science, had to fail – to ask the question which grounds all those other questions. This question is what is the meaning of should be a planet, (that) Being which is not an entity (like other beings, for example a chair, a car, a rock) and yet through it entities have meaning at vandalism essay, all? Investigating the persausive on why, question of the meaning of Being we discover that it arises only because it is made possible by the human being which poses the vandalism property essay, question. Dasein has already a (pre-conceptual) understanding of Being because it is the place where Being manifests itself. Research Papers On Employee Wellness Programs. Unlike the vandalism property essay, traditional understanding of the citing, human as a hypokeimenon (Aristotle) – what through the filtering of Greek thought by vandalism of public property, the Romans becomes substantia, that which supports all entities and qualities as their base and research papers their ground – Dasein refers to the way which human beings are. ”The essence of Dasein lies in its existence” (Heidegger 1962: 67) and the existence of Dasein is not fixed like the property, existence of a substance is. This is why human beings locate a place which nevertheless remains unstable and unfixed. The virtual place that Dasein occupies is not empty. It is filled with beings which ontologically structure the very possibility of Dasein. Dasein exists as in-the-world.
World is not something separate from Dasein; rather, Dasein cannot be understood outside the pre-dissertation research fellowship, referential totality which constitutes it. Essay. Heidegger repeats here a familiar existentialist pattern regarding the situatedness of experience. Sartre, by contrast, comes from the tradition of Descartes and to this tradition remains faithful. From Heidegger's perspective, Sartre’s strategy of affirming the priority of existence over essence is a by-product of the tradition of Renaissance humanism which wishes to assert the importance of man as the highest and apa most splendid of property essay, finite beings. Sartrean existence refers to the fact that a human is whereas Heidegger’s ek-sistence refers to the way with which Dasein is thrown into a world of referential relations and essays is wrong as such Dasein is claimed by Being to of public guard its truth. Sartre, following Descartes, thinks of the human as a substance producing or sustaining entities, Heidegger on the contrary thinks of the resume tech skills, human as a passivity which accepts the call of Being. Of Public. “Man is not the lord of beings. Man is the shepherd of Being” (Heidegger 1993:245).
The Heideggerian priority then is Being, and Dasein’s importance lies in its receptiveness to the call of pre-dissertation research fellowship, Being. For Kierkegaard anxiety defines the possibility of vandalism property, responsibility, the exodus of man from the innocence of Eden and his participation to history. But the birthplace of anxiety is the experience of nothingness, the state in which every entity is experienced as withdrawn from its functionality. “Nothing . gives birth to anxiety” (Kierkegaard 1980:41). Essays. In anxiety we do not fear something in particular but we experience the terror of a vacuum in which is existence is thrown. Existentialist thinkers are interested in anxiety because anxiety individualizes one (it is when I feel Angst more than everything that I come face to face with my own individual existence as distinct from vandalism of public property all other entities around me).
Heidegger thinks that one of the fundamental ways with which Dasein understands itself in the world is through an array of research papers, ‘moods’. Property. Dasein always ‘finds itself’ ( befinden sich ) in a certain mood. Man is not a thinking thing de-associated from the world, as in Cartesian metaphysics, but a being which finds itself in various moods such as anxiety or boredom. Dissertation Apa. For the of public property essay, Existentialists, primarily and for the most part I don’t exist because I think (recall Descartes’ famous formula) but because my moods reveal to me fundamental truths of my existence. Like Kierkegaard, Heidegger also believes that anxiety is born out of the terror of nothingness. Research On Employee Wellness Programs. “The obstinacy of the ‘nothing and nowhere within-the-world’ means as a phenomenon that the world as such is that in the face of which one has anxiety ” (Heidegger 1962:231). For Kierkegaard the possibility of anxiety reveals man’s dual nature and vandalism of public because of on employee, this duality man can be saved. “If a human being were a beast or an angel, he could not be in anxiety. Because he is a synthesis, he can be in anxiety; and property essay the more profoundly he is in anxiety, the greater is the man” (Kierkegaard 1980:155). Equally for Heidegger anxiety manifests Dasein’s possibility to live an planet authentic existence since it realizes that the crowd of of public, ‘others’ (what Heidegger calls the ‘They’) cannot offer any consolation to the drama of existence. In this article we have discussed the ambiguous or at times downright critical attitude of many existentialists toward the uncritical and unreflecting masses of people who, in pre-dissertation, a wholly anti-Kantian and thus also anti-Enlightenment move, locate the meaning of their existence in vandalism essay, an external authority.
They thus give up their (purported) autonomy as rational beings. For Heidegger, Dasein for resume tech skills, the most part lives inauthentically in that Dasein is absorbed in a way of vandalism of public property essay, life produced by others, not by Dasein itself. “We take pleasure and enjoy ourselves as they [man] take pleasure; we read, see and judge about literature and art as they see and judge. ” (Heidegger 1962:164). To be sure this mode of existence, the ‘They’ ( Das Man ) is resume one of the existentialia, it is an a priori condition of possibility of the Dasein which means that inauthenticity is inscribed into vandalism property essay, the mode of dissertation, being of Dasein, it does not come from the outside as a bad influence which could be erased. Heidegger’s language is ambiguous on the problem of inauthenticity and the reader has to make his mind on the status of the ‘They’. Vandalism Property Essay. A lot has been said on persausive on why the possible connections of Heidegger’s philosophy with his political engagements. Although it is always a risky business to read the vandalism of public, works of great philosophers as political manifestos, it seems prima facie evident that Heidegger’s thought in this area deserves the close investigation it has received. Heidegger was a highly original thinker. His project was nothing less than the overcoming of Western metaphysics through the positing of the forgotten question of being.
He stands in a critical relation to why pluto should be a past philosophers but simultaneously he is heavily indebted to them, much more than he would like to admit. This is not to question his originality, it is to recognize that thought is not an ex nihilo production; it comes as a response to things past, and aims towards what is made possible through that past. d. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) as an Existentialist Philosopher. In the public consciousness, at least, Sartre must surely be the central figure of existentialism. Vandalism Of Public Essay. All the themes that we introduced above come together in his work. With the possible exception of Nietzsche, his writings are the most widely anthologised (especially the final project comprehensive argument, lovely, if oversimplifying, lecture 'Existentialism and Humanism') and his literary works are widely read (especially the novel Nausea ) or performed. Although uncomfortable in the limelight, he was nevertheless the very model of a public intellectual, writing hundreds of short pieces for public dissemination and taking resolutely independent and often controversial stands on vandalism of public property major political events. His writings that are most clearly existentialist in character date from Sartre's early and middle period, primarily the 1930s and 1940s. From the 1950s onwards, Sartre moved his existentialism towards a philosophy the purpose of which was to pre-dissertation understand the possibility of of public essay, a genuinely revolutionary politics. Sartre was in essays outsourcing, his late 20s when he first encountered phenomenology, specifically the philosophical ideas of vandalism essay, Edmund Husserl. (We should point out resume tech skills, that Heidegger was also deeply influenced by Husserl, but it is property less obvious in the language he employs because he drops the language of consciousness and acts.) Of particular importance, Sartre thought, was Husserl's notion of intentionality. In Sartre's interpretation of this idea, consciousness is not to be identified with a thing (for example a mind, soul or brain), that is to say some kind of a repository of ideas and images of things.
Rather, consciousness is nothing but a directedness towards things. Sartre found a nice way to sum up the tech, notion of the intentional object: If I love her, I love her because she is lovable (Sartre 1970:4-5). Within my experience, her lovableness is not an aspect of my image of of public property, her, rather it is resume tech skills a feature of her (and ultimately a part of the world) towards which my consciousness directs itself. The things I notice about her (her smile, her laugh) are not originally neutral, and then I interpret the idea of them as 'lovely', they are aspects of her as lovable. The notion that consciousness is not a thing is vital to Sartre.
Indeed, consciousness is primarily to be characterised as nothing : it is first and foremost not that which it is vandalism of public property essay conscious of. (Sartre calls human existence the 'for-itself', and the being of essays final comprehensive analysis, things the 'in-itself'.) Because it is not a thing, it is vandalism of public essay not subject to the laws of things; specifically, it is not part of a chain of causes and its identity is not akin to that of a substance. Outsourcing Is Wrong. Above we suggested that a concern with the nature of existence, and more particularly a concern with the distinctive nature of human existence, are defining existentialist themes. Moreover, qua consciousness, and not a thing that is part of the causal chain, I am free. From moment to moment, my every action is mine alone to choose. I will of course have a past 'me' that cannot be dispensed with; this is part of my 'situation'. However, again, I am first and foremost not my situation. Thus, at every moment I choose whether to continue on that life path, or to be something else. Thus, my existence (the mere fact that I am) is prior to my essence (what I make of myself through my free choices). I am thus utterly responsible for myself. If my act is not simply whatever happens to vandalism of public come to mind, then my action may embody a more general principle of action. This principle too is one that I must have freely chosen and committed myself to.
It is an image of the type of life that I believe has value. (In these ways, Sartre intersects with the apa, broadly Kantian account of freedom which we introduced above in our thematic section.) As situated, I also find myself surrounded by such images – from religion, culture, politics or morality – but none compels my freedom. (All these forces that seek to appropriate my freedom by objectifying me form Sartre's version of the crowd theme.) I exist as freedom, primarily characterised as not determined, so my continuing existence requires the vandalism, ever renewed exercise of freedom (thus, in our thematic discussion above, the pre-dissertation research fellowship, notion from Spinoza and Leibniz of existence as a striving-to-exist). Thus also, my non-existence, and the non-existence of everything I believe in, is only a free choice away. I (in the sense of an authentic human existence) am not what I 'am' (the past I have accumulated, the things that surround me, or the way that others view me). I am alone in my responsibility; my existence, relative to everything external that might give it meaning, is absurd. Vandalism Of Public. Face to face with such responsibility, I feel 'anxiety'. Notice that although Sartre's account of situatedness owes much to Nietzsche and Heidegger, he sees it primarily in terms of what gives human freedom its meaning and its burden. Nietzsche and Heidegger, in contrast, view such a conception of freedom as naively metaphysical. Suppose, however, that at some point I am conscious of myself in a thing-like way. For example, I say 'I am a student' (treating myself as having a fixed, thing-like identity) or 'I had no choice' (treating myself as belonging to the causal chain). I am ascribing a fixed identity or set of qualities to myself, much as I would say 'that is a piece of granite'.
In that case I am existing in denial of my distinctively human mode of skills, existence; I am fleeing from my freedom. This is inauthenticity or 'bad faith'. Vandalism Of Public Essay. As we shall see, inauthenticity is not just an occasional pitfall of human life, but essential to it. Human existence is a constant falling away from an research authentic recognition of its freedom. Sartre here thus echoes the notion in Heidegger than inauthenticity is a condition of possibility of human existence. Intentionality manifests itself in another important way. Rarely if ever am I simply observing the world; instead I am involved in wanting to do something, I have a goal or purpose.
Here, intentional consciousness is not a static directedness towards things, but is rather an active projection towards the future. Suppose that I undertake as my project marrying my beloved. This is an intentional relation to a future state of affairs. Of Public Property Essay. As free, I commit myself to this project and must reaffirm that commitment at every moment. It is part of my life project, the image of human life that I offer to myself and to others as something of value. Why Pluto Should Planet. Notice, however, that my project involves inauthenticity. I project myself into the future where I will be married to her – that is, I define myself as 'married', as if I were a fixed being.
Thus there is an essential tension to all projection. Vandalism Property Essay. On the one hand, the persausive essays outsourcing, mere fact that I project myself into the future is emblematic of property essay, my freedom; only a radically free consciousness can project itself. I exist as projecting towards the essays argument, future which, again, I am not . Thus, I am (in the sense of an authentic self) what I am not (because my projecting is always underway towards the future). On the other hand, in projecting I am projecting myself as something , that is, as a thing that no longer projects, has no future, is not free. Every action, then, is both an expression of freedom and also a snare of freedom. Projection is absurd: I seek to become the impossible object, for-itself-in-itself, a thing that is of public property both free and a mere thing. Born of this tension is a recognition of freedom, what it entails, and its essential fragility. Thus, once again, we encounter existential anxiety. (In this article, we have not stressed the importance of the concept of time for existentialism, but it should not be overlooked: witness one of Nietzsche's most famous concepts (eternal recurrence) and the title of Heidegger's major early work ( Being and Time ).) In my intentional directedness towards my beloved I find her 'loveable'. This too, though, is an objectification. Within my intentional gaze, she is loveable in much the same way that granite is hard or heavy.
Insofar as I am in love, then, I seek to deny her freedom. Insofar, however, as I wish to be loved by her, then she must be free to choose me as her beloved. If she is free, she escapes my love; if not, she cannot love. It is in these terms that Sartre analyses love in Part Three of research, Being and Nothingness . Love here is essay a case study in resume tech, the basic forms of social relation. Sartre is of public property thus moving from an entirely individualistic frame of reference (my self, my freedom and my projects) towards a consideration of the self in concrete relations with others. Sartre is apa working through – in a way he would shortly see as being inadequate – the issues presented by the Hegelian dialectic of recognition, which we mentioned above. This 'hell' of of public, endlessly circling acts of freedom and objectification is brilliantly dramatised in on why outsourcing is wrong, Sartre's play No Exit . A few years later at the end of the 1940s, Sartre wrote what has been published as Notebooks for an Ethics . Sartre (influenced in the meantime by the criticisms of Merleau-Ponty and de Beauvoir, and by his increasing commitment to collectivist politics) elaborated greatly his existentialist account of relations with others, taking the Hegelian idea more seriously.
He no longer thinks of concrete relations so pessimistically. While Nietzsche and of public property Heidegger both suggest the citing apa, possibility of an authentic being with others, both leave it seriously under-developed. For our purposes, there are two key ideas in of public, the Notebooks . Dissertation. The first is that my projects can be realised only with the cooperation of others; however, that cooperation presupposes their freedom (I cannot make her love me), and vandalism property their judgements about me must concern me. Therefore permitting and nurturing the freedom of others must be a central part of all my projects. Sartre thus commits himself against any political, social or economic forms of research papers wellness, subjugation. Vandalism Property. Second, there is the possibility of a form of social organisation and action in which each individual freely gives him or herself over to a joint project: a 'city of papers on employee wellness programs, ends' (this is a reworking of Kant's idea of the 'kingdom of ends', found in the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals ). An authentic existence, for Sartre, therefore means two things. First, it is something like a 'style' of existing – one that at every moment is anxious, and that means fully aware of the absurdity and fragility of its freedom. Second, though, there is vandalism of public essay some minimal level of content to any authentic project: whatever else my project is, it must also be a project of papers wellness, freedom, for myself and for others. e. Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Simone de Beauvoir was the youngest student ever to pass the vandalism of public, demanding agregation at the prestigious Ecole Normale Superieure.
Subsequently a star Normalienne , she was a writer, philosopher, feminist, lifelong partner of Jean-Paul Sartre, notorious for her anti-bourgeois way of be a planet essay, living and her free sexual relationships which included among others a passionate affair with the American writer Nelson Algren. Much ink has been spilled debating whether de Beauvoir’s work constitutes a body of vandalism property essay, independent philosophical work, or is a reformulation of why pluto be a essay, Sartre’s work. The debate rests of course upon the fundamental misconception that wants a body of work to of public essay exist and develop independently of (or uninfluenced by) its intellectual environment. Research Fellowship. Such ‘objectivity’ is not only vandalism, impossible but also undesirable: such a body of work would be ultimately irrelevant since it would be non-communicable. Should Planet. So the question of de Beauvoir’s ‘independence’ could be dismissed here as irrelevant to the philosophical questions that her work raises. In 1943 Being and property essay Nothingness , the tech, groundwork of the Existentialist movement in France was published. There Sartre gave an account of freedom as ontological constitutive of the subject. One cannot but be free: this is the kernel of the vandalism of public property essay, Sartrean conception of freedom. In 1945 Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology of pre-dissertation research, Perception is published. There, as well as in an essay from the same year titled 'The war has taken place' , Merleau-Ponty heavily criticizes the Sartrean stand, criticising it as a reformulation of basic Stoic tenets. One cannot assume freedom in isolation from the freedom of property essay, others.
Action is participatory: “…my freedom is interwoven with that of others by way of the world” (Merleau-Ponty in Stewart 1995:315). Moreover action takes place within a certain historical context. Essays Final Analysis. For Merleau-Ponty the vandalism essay, subjective free-will is always in a dialectical relationship with its historical context. In 1947 Simone de Beauvoir’s Ethics of Ambiguity is published. The book is an introduction to existentialism but also a subtle critique of Sartre’s position on freedom, and a partial extension of existentialism towards the social. Although de Beauvoir will echo Merleau-Ponty’s criticism regarding the essential interrelation of the research papers, subjects, nevertheless she will leave unstressed the importance that the social context plays in the explication of moral problems. Like Sartre it is only later in property, her life that this will be acknowledged. In any case, de Beauvoir’s book precipitates in essays project argument, turn a major rethink on Sartre’s part, and the result is the of public, Notebooks for why pluto planet essay, an Ethics . In Ethics of Ambiguity de Beauvoir offers a picture of the human subject as constantly oscillating between facticity and transcendence. Whereas the of public essay, human is always already restricted by the brute facts of should planet, his existence, nevertheless it always aspires to overcome its situation, to choose its freedom and thus to create itself. This tension must be considered positive, and not restrictive of essay, action.
It is exactly because the citing, ontology of the human is a battleground of antithetical movements (a view consistent with de Beauvoir’s Hegelianism) that the property, subject must produce an persausive ethics which will be continuous with its ontological core. The term for this tension is ambiguity . Of Public Property Essay. Ambiguity is essays not a quality of the human as substance, but a characterisation of human existence. We are ambiguous beings destined to throw ourselves into the future while simultaneously it is our very own existence that throws us back into facticity. That is to of public property essay say, back to the brute fact that we are in essays final project analysis, a sense always already destined to fail – not in this or that particular project but to fail as pure and of public property essay sustained transcendence. It is skills exactly because of (and through) this fundamental failure that we realize that our ethical relation to the world cannot be self-referential but must pass through the realization of the common destiny of the human as a failed and interrelated being. De Beauvoir, unlike Sartre, was a scholarly reader of Hegel. Her position on an existential ethics is of public property essay thus more heavily influenced by Hegel’s view in the Phenomenology of Spirit concerning the moment of research on employee, recognition (Hegel 1977:111). There Hegel describes the movement in which self-consciousness produces itself by positing another would be self-consciousness, not as a mute object ( Gegen-stand ) but as itself self-consciousness. The Hegelian movement remains one of the most fascinating moments in the history of philosophy since it is for of public property, the first time that the research papers on employee wellness, constitution of the self does not take place from within the self (as happens with Descartes, for whom the only truth is the truth of my existence; or Leibniz, for vandalism of public property, whom the why pluto should be a, monads are ‘windowless’; or Fichte, for of public essay, whom the ‘I’ is absolutely self-constitutive) but from the outside. Programs. It is, Hegel tells us, only because someone else recognizes me as a subject that I can be constituted as such. Outside the vandalism essay, moment of recognition there is no self-consciousness.
De Beauvoir takes to heart the Hegelian lesson and tries to formulate an ethics from tech it. What would this ethics be? As in Nietzsche, ethics refers to a way of life (a ????), as opposed to morality which concerns approved or condemned behaviour. Of Public Property Essay. Thus there are no recipes for ethics. Drawn from Hegel’s moment of recognition, de Beauvoir acknowledges that the possibility of human flourishing is based firstly upon the recognition of the planet, existence of the other (“Man can find a justification of his own existence only in vandalism, the existence of the other men” (Beauvoir 1976:72) and secondly on essays on why outsourcing the recognition that my own flourishing (or my ability to pose projects, in the language of existentialists) passes through the vandalism of public property essay, possibility of a common flourishing. “Only the freedom of others keeps each one of us from comprehensive hardening in the absurdity of facticity,” (Beauvoir 1976:71) de Beauvoir writes; or again “To will oneself free is also to will others free” (Beauvoir 1976:73). The Ethics of Ambiguity ends by declaring the necessity of assuming one’s freedom and the assertion that it is only through action that freedom makes itself possible. This is not a point to be taken light-heartedly. It constitutes a movement of opposition against a long tradition of philosophy understanding itself as theoria : the disinterested contemplation on the nature of the human and the world. De Beauvoir, in vandalism essay, common with most existentialists, understands philosophy as praxis : involved action in the world and participation in the course of history.
It is out of this understanding that The Second Sex is born. In 1949 Le Deuxieme Sexe is published in France. Essays Outsourcing Is Wrong. In English in 1953 it appeared as The Second Sex in an abridged translation. The book immediately became a best seller and later a founding text of S econd Wave Feminism (the feminist movement from the early 60’s to the 70’s inspired by the civil rights movement and of public focusing at citing dissertation, the theoretical examination of the concepts of equality, inequality, the vandalism property essay, role of family, justice and so forth). More than anything, The Second Sex constitutes a study in applied existentialism where the abstract concept ‘Woman’ gives way to the examination of the lives of everyday persons struggling against oppression and humiliation. When de Beauvoir says that there is no such thing as a ‘Woman’ we have to hear the echo of the why pluto planet essay, Kierkegaardian assertion of the single individual against the abstractions of Hegelian philosophy, or similarly Sartre’s insistence on the necessity of the prioritization of the personal lives of self-creating people (what Sartre calls ‘existence’) as opposed to a pre-established ideal of what humans should be like (what Sartre calls ‘essence’).
The Second Sex is an exemplary text showing how a philosophical movement can have real, tangible effects on the lives of many people, and is a magnificent exercise in what philosophy could be. “I hesitated a long time before writing a book on woman. The subject is irritating, especially for women. Vandalism Property Essay. ” (Beauvoir 2009:3). The Second Sex begins with the most obvious (but rarely posed) question: What is woman? De Beauvoir finds that at comprehensive, present there is no answer to of public that question. Be A. The reason is that tradition has always thought of woman as the other of man. It is only man that constitutes himself as a subject (as the vandalism essay, Absolute de Beauvoir says), and woman defines herself only through him. “She determines and differentiates herself in relation to man, and resume he does not in relation to her; she is the inessential in front of the essential. ” (Beauvoir 2009:6). But why is it that woman has initially accepted or tolerated this process whereby she becomes the other of man?
De Beauvoir does not give a consoling answer; on the contrary, by turning to of public essay Sartre’s notion of bad faith (which refers to should planet the human being’s anxiety in front of the responsibility entailed by the realization of its radical freedom) she thinks that women at times are complicit to their situation. Property. It is indeed easier for one – anyone – to assume the essays final comprehensive, role of an object (for example a housewife 'kept' by her husband) than to take responsibility for creating him or herself and creating the possibilities of freedom for others. Naturally the condition of bad faith is not always the vandalism property essay, case. Often women found themselves in a sociocultural environment which denied them the very possibility of personal flourishing (as happens with most of the why pluto planet, major religious communities). Vandalism Essay. A further problem that women face is that of understanding themselves as a unity which would enable them to resume assume the role of their choosing. “Proletarians say ‘we’. So do blacks” (Beauvoir 2009:8). By saying ‘we’ they assume the role of the subject and turn everyone else into property, ‘other’. Women are unable to utter this ‘we’. “They live dispersed among men, tied by homes, work, economic interests and social conditions to certain men – fathers or husbands – more closely than to other women. Final Comprehensive Argument Analysis. As bourgeois women, they are in solidarity with bourgeois men and vandalism of public not with women proletarians; as white women, they are in solidarity with white men and not with black women” (Beauvoir 2009:9).
Women primarily align themselves to their class or race and citing dissertation apa not to other women. The female identity is “very much bound up with the identity of the men around them. ” (Reynolds 2006:145). One of the most celebrated moments in The Second Sex is the much quoted phrase: “One is not born, but rather becomes, woman” (Beauvoir 2009:293). She explains: “No biological, physical or economic destiny defines the figure that the human female takes on in society; it is civilization as a whole that elaborates this intermediary product between the male and the eunuch that is called feminine” (Beauvoir 2009:293). For some feminists this clearly inaugurates the problematic of the sex-gender distinction (where sex denotes the vandalism of public essay, biological identity of the person and citing dissertation apa gender the cultural attribution of properties to the sexed body). Simply put, there is absolutely nothing that determines the ‘assumed’ femininity of the woman (how a woman acts, feels, behaves) – everything that we have come to think as ‘feminine’ is a social construction not a natural given. Later feminists like Monique Wittig and vandalism of public property Judith Butler will argue that ‘sex’ is already ‘gender’ in the sense that a sexed body exists always already within a cultural nexus that defines it. Resume. Thus the sex assignment (a doctor pronouncing the sex of the baby) is a naturalized (but not at all natural) normative claim which delivers the human into a world of power relations. f. Albert Camus (1913-1960) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Albert Camus was a French intellectual, writer and journalist.
His multifaceted work as well as his ambivalent relation to both philosophy and existentialism makes every attempt to essay classify him a rather risky operation. A recipient of the 1957 Nobel Prize for Literature primarily for his novels, he is also known as a philosopher due to his non-literary work and his relation with Jean-Paul Sartre. And yet his response was clear: “I am not a philosopher, because I don’t believe in reason enough to believe in a system. What interests me is knowing how we must behave, and more precisely, how to behave when one does not believe in God or reason” (Camus in Sherman 2009: 1). Tech. The issue is not just about the label 'existentialist'. It rather points to property essay a deep tension within the current of thought of all thinkers associated with existentialism. Pre-dissertation. The question is: With how many voices can thought speak?
As we have already seen, the thinkers of existentialism often deployed more than one. Almost all of them share a deep suspicion to vandalism a philosophy operating within reason as conceived of by the Enlightenment. Camus shares this suspicion and his so called philosophy of the absurd intends to tech set limits to the overambitions of Western rationality. Reason is absurd in that it believes that it can explain the totality of the human experience whereas it is exactly its inability for explanation that, for example, a moment of fall designates. Thus in his novel “The Fall” the protagonist’s tumultuous narrative reveals the overtaking of a life of superficial regularity by vandalism of public essay, the forces of darkness and pre-dissertation research irrationality. “A bourgeois hell, inhabited of of public property, course by bad dreams” (Camus 2006:10). In a similar fashion Camus has also repudiated his connection with existentialism. Essays. “Non, je ne suis pas existentialist” is the title of a famous interview that he gave for the magazine Les Nouvelles Litteraires on the 15 of November, 1945. Of Public Property Essay. The truth of the matter is final argument that Camus’ rejection of existentialism is vandalism of public property directed more toward Sartre’s version of it rather than toward a dismissal of the main problems that the existential thinkers faced. Particularly, Camus was worried that Sartre’s deification of history (Sartre’s proclaimed Marxism) would be incompatible with the affirmation of personal freedom. Camus accuses Hegel (subsequently Marx himself) of reducing man to history and thus denying man the possibility of creating his own history, that is, affirming his freedom. Philosophically, Camus is known for his conception of the absurd. Perhaps we should clarify from the very beginning what the absurd is not.
The absurd is not nihilism. For Camus the acceptance of the absurd does not lead to persausive on why nihilism (according to Nietzsche nihilism denotes the state in which the highest values devalue themselves) or to inertia, but rather to their opposite: to action and participation. The notion of the absurd signifies the space which opens up between, on of public property the one hand, man’s need for why pluto, intelligibility and, on the other hand, 'the unreasonable silence of the world' as he beautifully puts it. Property Essay. In a world devoid of God, eternal truths or any other guiding principle, how could man bear the responsibility of a meaning-giving activity? The absurd man, like an astronaut looking at the earth from above, wonders whether a philosophical system, a religion or a political ideology is able to make the world respond to the questioning of man, or rather whether all human constructions are nothing but the excessive face-paint of a clown which is there to cover his sadness. This terrible suspicion haunts the absurd man. In one of the most memorable openings of a non-fictional book he states: “There is final argument but one truly serious philosophical problem and that is suicide. Vandalism Of Public Property Essay. Judging whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of philosophy.
All the rest – whether or not the world has three dimensions, whether the mind has nine or twelve categories – comes afterwards. These are games; one must first answer” (Camus 2000:11). Should Essay. The problem of suicide (a deeply personal problem) manifests the exigency of a meaning-giving response. Indeed for Camus a suicidal response to the problem of meaning would be the confirmation that the absurd has taken over man’s inner life. It would mean that man is not any more an animal going after answers, in accordance with some inner drive that leads him to act in order to endow the world with meaning. The suicide has become but a passive recipient of the muteness of the world. “. Property Essay. The absurd . is essays final project comprehensive simultaneously awareness and vandalism rejection of death” (Camus 2000:54). One has to persausive essays be aware of death – because it is precisely the realization of man’s mortality that pushes someone to strive for answers – and one has ultimately to reject death – that is, reject suicide as well as the living death of inertia and inaction. At the end one has to keep the absurd alive, as Camus says. Vandalism Of Public Property Essay. But what does it that mean? In The Myth of Sisyphus Camus tells the story of the mythical Sisyphus who was condemned by wellness, the Gods to of public property ceaselessly roll a rock to the top of a mountain and then have to let it fall back again of its own weight. “Sisyphus, proletarian of the gods, powerless and rebellious, knows the whole extent of his wretched condition: it is what he thinks of during his descent.
The lucidity that was to constitute his torture at essays final comprehensive, the same time crowns his victory. There is no fate that cannot be surmounted by scorn” (Camus 2000:109). One must imagine then Sisyphus victorious: fate and absurdity have been overcome by a joyful contempt. Vandalism Essay. Scorn is the appropriate response in the face of the absurd; another name for this 'scorn' though would be artistic creation. When Camus says: “One does not discover the absurd without being tempted to write a manual of happiness” (Camus 2000:110) he writes about a moment of exhilarated madness, which is the moment of the genesis of the artistic work.
Madness, but nevertheless profound – think of the fellowship, function of the Fool in Shakespeare’s King Lear as the one who reveals to the king the most profound truths through play, mimicry and songs. Such madness can overcome the vandalism of public property, absurd without cancelling it altogether. Almost ten years after the publication of pre-dissertation research fellowship, The Myth of Sisyphus Camus publishes his second major philosophical work, The Rebel (1951). Camus continues the problematic which had begun with The Myth of Sisyphus. Previously, revolt or creation had been considered the necessary response to the absurdity of existence. Here, Camus goes on property to examine the nature of rebellion and its multiple manifestations in history. In The Myth of Sisyphus , in truly Nietzschean fashion, Camus had said: “There is but one useful action, that of remaking man and the earth” (Camus 2000:31). However, in The Rebel , reminiscent of Orwell’s Animal Farm , one of the citing, first points he makes is the following: “The slave starts by begging for justice and ends by vandalism of public property essay, wanting to wear a crown. He too wants to dominate” (Camus 2000b:31).
The problem is that while man genuinely rebels against both unfair social conditions and, as Camus says, against the whole of why pluto should be a essay, creation, nevertheless in vandalism essay, the practical administration of such revolution, man comes to deny the humanity of the other in an attempt to impose his own individuality. Take for example the case of the research wellness, infamous Marquis de Sade which Camus explores. In Sade, contradictory forces are at work (see The 120 Days of Sodom ). On the one hand, Sade wishes the establishment of a (certainly mad ) community with desire as the essay, ultimate master, and on persausive on why outsourcing the other hand this very desire consumes itself and of public all the citing, subjects who stand in its way. Camus goes on to examine historical manifestations of rebellion, the most prominent case being that of the French Revolution. Camus argues that the revolution ended up taking the place of the transcendent values which it sought to abolish. An all-powerful notion of justice now takes the place formerly inhabited by God. Rousseau’s infamous suggestion that under the rule of ‘general will’ everyone would be 'forced to be free' (Rousseau in Foley 2008:61) opens the way to the crimes committed after the revolution. Camus fears that all revolutions end with the re-establishment of the State. “. Seventeen eighty-nine brings Napoleon; 1848 Napoleon III; 1917 Stalin; the Italian disturbances of the twenties, Mussolini; the Weimar Republic, Hitler” (Camus 2000b:146). Camus is led to examine the Marxist view of of public, history as a possible response to the failed attempts at the establishment of a true revolutionary regime.
Camus examines the similarities between the Christian and the Marxist conception of history. They both exhibit a bourgeois preoccupation with progress. In the essays final project comprehensive argument, name of the future everything can be justified: “the future is the vandalism of public, only kind of resume skills, property that the masters willingly concede to the slaves” (Camus 2000b:162). History according to both views is the linear progress from a set beginning to a definite end (the metaphysical salvation of man or the materialistic salvation of him in the future Communist society). Influenced by Kojeve’s reading of Hegel, Camus interprets this future, classless society as the ‘end of history’. The ‘end of history’ suggests that when all contradictions cease then history itself will come to an end. This is, Camus argues, essentially nihilistic: history, in effect, accepts that meaning creation is property no longer possible and commits suicide. Because historical revolutions are for citing dissertation apa, the most part nihilistic movements, Camus suggests that it is the making-absolute of the values of the revolution that necessarily lead to their negation.
On the contrary a relative conception of these values will be able to sustain a community of free individuals who have not forgotten that every historical rebellion has begun by of public, affirming a proto-value (that of human solidarity) upon which every other value can be based. 3. The Influence of Existentialism. In the field of visual arts existentialism exercised an enormous influence, most obviously on the movement of pre-dissertation research fellowship, Expressionism. Expressionism began in Germany at the beginning of the 20 th century. With its emphasis on subjective experience, Angst and intense emotionality, German expressionism sought to go beyond the naivete of essay, realist representation and to deal with the anguish of the modern man (exemplified in the terrible experiences of WWI). Many of the artists of Expressionism read Nietzsche intensively and resume skills following Nietzsche’s suggestion for a transvaluation of vandalism of public property essay, values experimented with alternative lifestyles.
Erich Heckel’s woodcut “Friedrich Nietzsche” from 1905 is a powerful reminder of the movement’s connection to Existentialist thought. Analysis. Abstract expressionism (which included artists such as de Kooning and Pollock, and theorists such as Rosenberg) continued with some of the same themes in the United States from the 1940s and tended to embrace existentialism as one of its intellectual guides, especially after Sartre's US lecture tour in 1946 and a production of No Exit in New York. German Expressionism was particularly important during the birth of the new art of cinema. Perhaps the closest cinematic work to Existentialist concerns remains F.W. Murnau’s The Last Laugh (1924) in which the constantly moving camera (which prefigures the vandalism of public, ‘rule’ of the hand-held camera of the dissertation apa, Danish Dogma 95 ) attempts to arrest the spiritual anguish of a man who suddenly finds himself in a meaningless world. Vandalism Of Public Property Essay. Expressionism became a world-wide style within cinema, especially as film directors like Lang fled Germany and ended up in Hollywood. Jean Genet's Un chant d'amour (1950) is a moving poetic exploration of desire. In the sordid, claustrophobic cells of a prison the inmates’ craving for intimacy takes place against persausive essays on why the background of an unavoidable despair for existence itself. European directors such as Bergman and Godard are often associated with existentialist themes. Godard's Vivre sa vie ( My Life to Live , 1962) is explicit in its exploration of the nature of freedom under conditions of extreme social and personal pressure. In the late 20 th and early 21 st centuries existentialist ideas became common in of public, mainstream cinema, pervading the work of writers and directors such as Woody Allen, Richard Linklater, Charlie Kaufman and Christopher Nolan.
Given that Sartre and Camus were both prominent novelists and playwrights, the influence of existentialism on literature is not surprising. However, the citing dissertation apa, influence was also the other way. Novelists such as Dostoevsky or Kafka, and the dramatist Ibsen, were often cited by vandalism property, mid-century existentialists as important precedents, right along with Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. Dostoevsky creates a character Ivan Karamazov (in The Brothers Karamazov , 1880) who holds the research programs, view that if God is of public essay dead, then everything is permitted; both Nietzsche and Sartre discuss Dostoevsky with enthusiasm. Within drama, the theatre of the absurd and most obviously Beckett were influenced by existentialist ideas; later playwrights such as Albee, Pinter and Stoppard continue this tradition. One of the resume tech, key figures of 20 th century psychology, Sigmund Freud, was indebted to Nietzsche especially for property essay, his analysis of the role of psychology within culture and history, and for his view of cultural artefacts such as drama or music as 'unconscious' documentations of psychological tensions. But a more explicit taking up of existentialist themes is found in the broad 'existentialist psychotherapy' movement. A common theme within this otherwise very diverse group is persausive outsourcing is wrong that previous psychology misunderstood the fundamental nature of the human and especially its relation to property essay others and to acts of meaning-giving; thus also, previous psychology had misunderstood what a 'healthy' attitude to self, others and essays is wrong meaning might be.
Key figures here include Swiss psychologists Ludwig Binswanger and of public property later Menard Boss, both of who were enthusiastic readers of Heidegger; the Austrian Frankl, who invented the method of persausive, logotherapy; in England, Laing and Cooper, who were explicitly influenced by Sartre; and in the United States, Rollo May, who stresses the ineradicable importance of anxiety. As a whole, existentialism has had relatively little direct influence within philosophy. In Germany, existentialism (and especially Heidegger) was criticised for being obscure, abstract or even mystical in nature. This criticism was made especially by Adorno in of public property essay, The Jargon of Authenticity, and in Dog Years , novelist Gunter Grass gives a Voltaire-like, savage satire of Heidegger. Essays Final Project Comprehensive Analysis. The criticism was echoed by of public essay, many in the analytic tradition. Heidegger and the existentialist were also taken to task for paying insufficient attention to social and political structures or values, with dangerous results.
In France, philosophers like Sartre were criticised by those newly under the should planet, influence of vandalism property, structuralism for paying insufficient attention to the nature of language and to impersonal structures of meaning. In short, philosophy moved on, and in research papers wellness, different directions. Individual philosophers remain influential, however: Nietzsche and Heidegger in particular are very much 'live' topics in philosophy, even in the 21 st century. However, there are some less direct influences that remain important. Let us raise three examples. Both the issue of freedom in relation to situation, and that of the philosophical significance of what otherwise might appear to be extraneous contextual factors, remain key, albeit in dramatically altered formulation, within the work of vandalism of public property essay, Michel Foucault or Alain Badiou, two figures central to late 20 th century European thought.
Likewise, the philosophical importance that the existentialists placed upon why pluto essay, emotion has been influential, legitimising a whole domain of philosophical research even by philosophers who have no interest in existentialism. Similarly, existentialism was a philosophy that insisted philosophy could and should deal very directly with 'real world' topics such as sex, death or crime, topics that had most frequently been approached abstractly within the philosophical tradition. Mary Warnock wrote on of public property essay existentialism and essays analysis especially Sartre, for example, while also having an incredibly important and vandalism property essay public role within recent applied ethics.
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As a result, your resume needs to pre-dissertation fellowship, be flawless and different. Your resume needs to speak to vandalism of public essay, the needs of the position for which you are applying. Your resume needs to attract enough attention to get you the apa interview. Free bonus: The One Resume Resource You’ll Ever Need is a handy reference to make your resume get you more job interviews. Download it free now. Vandalism Property. Copywriters are paid to persuade. Their words will drive consumers to purchase goods and services. Resume Tech. Learn the essay art of selling yourself through text. Learn about the dissertation apa words which influence others. Land some interviews by writing awesome copy.
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Use unusual and readable fonts. Change the structure and offer something out of the ordinary to catch the recruiter’s eye. Property Essay. Your resume will be skimmed to essays outsourcing, see if you fit the position. By defining your experience in vandalism of public terms of the key words on citing the job posting, you stand out more than the person who did not use the key words from the job posting. Vandalism Of Public Essay. Think of your resume from the recruiter’s standpoint. It is one of many that must be filtered through to find that perfect applicant. You have read ‘responsible for X’ and essays on why is wrong ‘responsible for Y’ so many times that you have stopped paying attention to vandalism, anything past the word ‘for.’ As an persausive essays is wrong, applicant, use action words which further describe your duties. HR professionals are skimming through many resumes. They are more likely to set aside resumes which quickly highlight pertinent experience. If you bury your professional qualifications under a mountain of words, there is a great chance that it will be overlooked in favor of the simple and direct resume. Use bullet points and very short paragraphs.
Recruiters want to know about your numbers. They want to of public property essay, know the specific details about your previous job duties, rather than general information. There is a distinct difference between the research person who handled 20 customers per day and the one who satisfied 200 customers per day. There are skills which are useful in every profession. Can you sell yourself and the company’s products? Are you a team player who is quick to see the big picture? Are you a fast learner who can operate any piece of equipment? You might be looking for a position which is not in vandalism of public property essay your original field.
A skills-based resume is excellent for those who want to experience a different profession. Technical errors within a resume are sloppy. The recruiter expects you to essays on why outsourcing, pay attention to detail. Read your resume repeatedly, checking for property essay, grammatical and typographical errors. When you are finished with your proofing, have a friend proof it. Show your future employer that you care about their company. Stand out by be a planet essay using simple action words in your resume. Pay special attention to the key words that were used in the job posting. People with better resumes get more interviews.
If you want a handy resume and vandalism CV resource that you can keep on your smartphone or print out for easy reference, this special bonus is for you. This free download contains: 111 Smart Resume Section Headings and tech skills Titles 60 Resume Achievement Writing Ideas and Expressions 500 Positive Resume Action Verbs That Get Job Interviews 35 Resume Filenames Recruiters Won’t Respond To Click the image below to get access to of public property essay, The One Resume Resource You’ll Ever Need : JobMob Insiders can get this free bonus and other exclusive content in the JobMob Insider Bonuses area. Fellowship. Join now, it's free! Today’s post was contributed by James Adams who works at Cartridge Save where he writes comparisons of printer ink. He is also a regular guest contributor to blogs. Vandalism Essay. Subscribe to JobMob via RSS or email and follow me on Twitter for essays project argument, more tips on of public improving your print resume or CV. Job Search Expert, Professional Blogger, Creative Thinker, Community Builder with a sense of humor. I like to help people. How To Massively Crowdsource Your Job Search.
How To Use Guest Blogging To Attract Work. Research. 3 Unemployment Survival Lessons From Your Canadian English Teacher. Just one note about vandalism property essay tip #3- specifically on a print resume, I don#8217;t agree that you should use unusual fonts. Unusual fonts aren#8217;t likely to be found on dissertation apa the computer of every recruiter who will see your resume. Instead, their computer will choose a font that *is* there, and the consequence will be your resume appearing differently than you intended. i am Eritrea refugee,i haven#8217;t degree. i am Eritrea refugee,i haven#8217;t degree. TOP tips. Another one I would add which I described in property quite some detail in my blog is to use #8220;copywriting/marketing#8221;-style headlines rather than boring, corporate-like headlines in your CV. You want to catch the recruiters attention and as long as you do it tactfully this can be a great differentiator. Sorry Jacob for research, the sudden and of public unexpected passing of your Uncle Harvey. With your very clear description of Mr Harvey#8217;s personality I can only strongly feel in essays argument analysis my heart that we all have lost a very valuable memeber of our Human Family. Vandalism Property. My deep condolences to you and also to Mr Haverey#8217;s family and friends.
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essays on brain food About 200,000 years ago, when humans first appeared, they lived as hunter-gatherers in small nomadic bands of 25-35. About 50,000 years ago, in apparently a single ‘dispersal', they migrated out of Africa where they had originated, into Arabia and southern Asia, then to Malaysia, Australia, and New Guinea, not reaching Europe until perhaps 40 to vandalism 45,000 years ago. No matter where they settled, whether in the desert or the subarctic, they continued the hunter-gatherer life style, adjusting it to the locale. Provisioning themselves from the land, women gathered plant foods and men hunted. When collecting plants, women often carried their infants in citing apa a leather sling, on their hip. Women gathering plants, and men hunting was the trend, but the variability was broad. Vandalism Of Public Property! In the Arctic there were no plants to gather, and resume skills, people lived on meat and blubber. In braving the blizzards and the freezing temperatures, Inuits proved the obvious: Human adaptability has no limits.
The sharing of wives rather than practicing monogamy as nearly all hunter-gatherer bands did, was an Inuit adaptation to the Arctic. Men who belonged to vandalism of public property the same hunting party, shared wives. Papers Programs! The wives, all of whom were potential widows, were well served by this communal arrangement, for Arctic hunting is vandalism, extremely risky. Programs! A widow ‘married' to a living group (rather than a dead husband) would not go hungry. Of Public! Nor would her children.
In the dense forests, women (and sometimes children) drove animals into nets where men killed the ensnared animals; in why pluto should planet essay harsh deserts, women brought back animals as well as plants. The occasional kangaroo or. cassowary, the vandalism of public property essay large game men hunted, were often equaled in be a planet caloric value by the smaller game, the lizards, snakes, rodents, caught by women. Of Public! Not all women returned with smaller game. Leaving their children home in tech the care of vandalism of public property essay others, some women hunted as men did with bow and arrow. Even more remarkable are the groups in which men collected plant food! Since time immemorial, people have dreamt of escaping competitiveness and of living harmoniously. Many of these seekers are ignorant of prehistory; ignorant of the on employee achievements of vandalism property essay their ancestors.
They do not know that hunter-gatherers, their human ancestors, lived in an equitable society for almost 200,000 years! In a society with little economic division or social hierarchy, and few permanent leaders. In some groups, women enjoyed greater sexual equality than at any other time in history. How did hunter-gatherers escape human competitiveness? How did they manage to live equitably for thousands of years? In their small groups, they knew one another personally. Food was scarce. Not to the point of starvation. But unreliable. Had hunter-gatherer groups been large enough to eliminate personal recognition, would their equitable society have survived? Probably not.
What if the group had remained small, but the pre-dissertation fellowship food supply had become reliable, even abundant? This question has been ‘tested ‘ and given a clear answer. Hunter-gatherer groups that lived by the sea, for example, where food was plentiful, did NOT share food. These groups lost their equitable society, became hierarchic, and vandalism of public, divided into rich and poor. Pre-dissertation! They acquired permanent leaders with special prerogatives - - the inequities of vandalism modern society! There is reason to believe that all hierarchic groups, at some time in research wellness programs their history, had abundant food. Water provided the food in some cases: fish migrated into the streams near them; the open sea offered large fish. Land in vandalism essay other cases: herds of bison ran in tech the nearby fields. Sometimes cold weather accompanied the vandalism essay abundance of food. Then, groups were able to smoke salmon, dry bison, and be supplied throughout the winter. The storage of food destroyed the little that remained of the traditional hunter-gatherer band.
Groups that had been nomadic, moving every few months in dissertation apa search of food or water holes, became stationary. Now they remained in the same place long enough to grow and harvest small gardens. And they no longer lived in flimsy shelters that could be put up in a matter of a few hours, but in permanent houses. In egalitarian bands all the children awoke to largely the same expectations. Of Public! In hierarchic bands, children of the should rich and poor awoke to distinctly different prospects: a day spent in the light of a well-placed father, vs. a day spent in the shadow of a lowly father. Hierarchical bands marked high and low status conspicuously, for instance, leaders did not have to hunt or fish for themselves, they were given food by others.. Some of the hierarchical groups added war, and fought viciously with their neighbors. Fights of this kind were relatively infrequent, not only vandalism, among egalitarian groups, but among the remaining hierarchical bands as well. The warlike groups not only fought and took prisoners, they turned the prisoners into slaves.
If we look only at the egalitarian bands, that formed the majority, comprising perhaps over citing apa 90% of our prehistory, we are unprepared for property essay the inequities of persausive on why outsourcing our modern world. Vandalism Of Public Essay! But if we look at the remaining 10%, with its social hierarchy, war and slavery, the modern world ceases to be a mystery. How does abundant food turn an egalitarian group into a hierarchical one? People share food when it is persausive essays on why outsourcing, scarce or its supply is unreliable, But they do not share when food is abundant. Of Public Property Essay! They keep not only essays project, food for themselves, but the vandalism of public essay goods they receive when bartering with extra food. This too contrasts with what is done in a time of scarcity. When food is scarce, a gifted hunter who is lucky enough to resume barter his occasional extra food for of public a cow or horse will share the milk with other group members and essays final project, allow them to essay use the horse. Sharing food suppresses the enormous individual differences in ability that divide people. People of high ability, when sharing food with their neighbors, do not exploit their superior ability, to take advantage of their neighbors. Instead, they use their ability to help both themselves and their neighbors. When food is abundant, however, people use their superior ability selfishly.
They use it to accumulate as much food as possible. A competition ensues among the able, won by the individual who is best able at translating his goods into power. In time, this individual will establish himself as the leader of the be a planet essay band. Under his leadership, the cultural values of the egalitarian band, modesty and equality, will weaken, and the band will begin to accept the quite different values of the hierarchic band, stridency and self-promotion. This change is vandalism of public property essay, not one that can be brought about in days, weeks or months. Probably it cannot be accomplished by just one power-driven leader, but by a succession of them. Project Comprehensive Argument! Overcoming the culture of the egalitarian band may take several generations. Was the transition reversible? Since the change from scarce to abundant food was in all likelihood the key factor in converting an egalitarian group into vandalism of public property, a hierarchic one, would the opposite reverse the process?
Would the depletion of a once abundant food supply restore a formerly egalitarian group to its original condition? would the group resume food sharing? Data that bear on be a planet essay this question suggest that the answer is no. Hierarchic groups have been found to have a high density of people per of public property unit food, and papers on employee programs, indeed some anthropologists have proposed this as the cause of hierarchic groups. A mistake, I suggest. It confuses the long-term consequences of a hierarchic group with the condition that caused the group to form in the first place. Hierarchic groups, at essay, least in their early stages, have an abundant supply of wellness food. This abundance attracts people, leading in time to a high density of people. The abundant food supply may also increase the essay birth rate, contributing to tech skills the high density of people.
Stored food, one of the consequences of an abundant food supply, leads people to become sedentary. People have a higher birth rate when sedentary. Probably the inter-birth interval declines, and so does the practice of vandalism property infanticide common in nomadic groups. People multiply, but not the food supply. Tech! As a consequence, the density of vandalism of public property essay people per unit food increases. This may be the common fate of groups that begin with an exceptional food supply. As the food diminishes relative to the population, will the group revert to its egalitarian origins?
The data indicate that it will not. Citing Dissertation! People at the top, who are least affected by any shortage of food, will not willingly give up their privileges. People at the bottom, who are most affected by a shortage of food, very seldom act forcibly to increase their privileges. On the few occasion in more recent history when the underprivileged did react, their revolutions did not produce an egalitarian society. They simply changed the membership of the privileged group. Humans have a built-in inequality. Property Essay! Some are twice as smart as others, twice as sly, bold, cunning, etc. Differences of this kind express themselves - - whether food is scarce or plentiful - - except under one condition: Circumstances force people to share food. Pre-dissertation Research! Sharing blocks the expression of individual differences in ability, producing, as it did in vandalism of public property the case of the hunter-gatherers, an equitable society that lasted thousands of years. When food was scarce or its supply unreliable, men shared meat and women shared plant food.
The sharing of meat by men is generally regarded as a case of research reciprocal altruism. Of Public Essay! An individual who has food gives it to those who do not, on the expectation that he will be given food if the tables are turned. Though a skilled hunter will, in the long run, doubtless give far more than he receives, reciprocal altruism is an insurance policy. Were the hunter to run out of food, he would be protected against disaster. Reciprocal altruism, though probably the best-fitting model of the final project argument alternatives, is not a complete success. It will not explain sharing in large groups. Even in small groups, there is evidence in favor of other models, including a kinship effect (more given to vandalism property kin than non-kin), and so called ‘tolerated theft', meat obtained by persausive is wrong, insistent nagging (reminiscent of the vandalism scrounging by resume tech, which chimpanzees obtain meat from an animal holding the kill). Why do men hunt large game in the first place? They could obtain more food, with less risk, by combining the hunting of small game with gathering plants. Vandalism Of Public Property! But bold, successful risk-taking may attract sexual partners, and despite the belittling of the capture of large game, de rigeur in egalitarian groups, killing a large animal did not prevent the hunter from research gaining prestige. Young unmarried men who are skilled hunters offered meat to essay women for sex.
And men were not always upset when their wives participated. They enjoyed the meat. In a literature largely written by men, one hears more about the meat men shared than of the plant food shared by women. Nevertheless, women in some groups routinely collected more plants, berries, nuts, roots, etc. than needed and gave them to dissertation other women who too collected more than they needed. Giving of this kind is not well explained by reciprocal altruism, or any of the other evolutionary models designed to explain altruism. Of Public! On the contrary, it suggests that giving may be an intrinsic disposition in people, in women, at least. Fellowship! Giving may be an intrinsic disposition of men, too, though, in their case, because of the greater value of meat, the disposition to give may be suppressed. Many hunter-gatherer bands, while largely devoid of both social and economic division, did not necessarily have harmonious relations. Not everyone got along. But this was not a difficult problem to solve. Those who did not get along could leave to join another band belonging to the same core group.
There were more serious imperfections. Men, in the same band, sometimes murdered one another over women. They did so despite (or perhaps because of) love affairs. How common were affairs? Common enough to lead to vandalism property rules prescribing how an affair was to be conducted. Strictly forbidden was an affair with the brother or sister of one's spouse. When living as hunter-gatherers humans acquired their basic nature. Not only fellowship, language, which too often is taken to explain all of human uniqueness, but a number of other unique capacities as well.
Three are especially critical for understanding people. First, theory of mind (our ability to explain the actions of others by of public property, ‘reading' their minds and attributing mental states to them, such as think, want, hope, etc.). Second, pedagogy (our unique disposition to teach one another). Third, reasoning of resume skills various kinds (inference, analogies, causal reasoning, etc.). These capacities are often obscured by our preoccupation with language, but they are essential for human culture. Archeological evidence suggests that not only imitation but teaching may have evolved in the human lineage, and that as early as Homo erectus. Although the vandalism of public property earliest tools of Homo erectus were quite variable, their ‘intermediate' tools were surprisingly uniform, suggesting imitation, one individual copying another.
Their later tools are not only apa, uniform but complex, too complex perhaps to have been made by imitation alone. French archeologists devised a clever way to estimate the complexity of a tool: They made the tool themselves! Using the same kind of stones used by Homo erectus (the French lab is located exactly where H. erectus once lived), they found that the tool required a five-step sequence. It would have been difficult to reproduce a sequence of this kind by of public, imitation alone, some amount of correction or teaching was probably required, though the teaching need not have used language. The teacher could provide examples, and resume skills, then nod approval/disapproval as the students attempted to duplicate them. But language could have been used, since endocasts suggest that the brain of Homo erectus contained Broca's area, a fundamental language area. Flexibility, the property capacity to respond adaptively to unforseen conditions, is distinctive of human intelligence. Resume Tech Skills! While human intelligence initially evolved to solve the problems of the world of the hunter-gatherer, it continues to serve humans in of public solving the very different problems of the modern world. Had human intelligence not been flexible, people would never have survived this enormous transition. Some evolutionary psychologists claim that since evolution solves specific, not general, problems, there is resume tech skills, no general purpose knowledge.' This claim may be true of essay crickets or ducks, but not of humans.
When applied to humans the claim reveals a serious misunderstanding of human intelligence. When a human cuts an apple with a knife, marks a paper with a pencil, cooks meat over a fire, he recognizes these actions as examples of causal transformation. Shown a completely different transformation, say, of someone cleaning a table with a wet sponge, he would recognize this too as an example of causal action. Humans recognize physically different examples of cause because the human representation of pre-dissertation research fellowship all concepts - - not only that of causal action - - is abstract or general. Evolution may indeed solve specific problems, but the human representation of these ‘solutions' is nonetheless abstract and general. Perhaps the earliest indication of vandalism essay human flexibility lay in the dawn of the species when humans invented technologies - - fire, cooking, clothing, shelters - - that sealed their future. Equipped with these technologies they were able to drift out of Africa, spread across Asia into Europe, and, as hunter-gatherers, settled in virtually every corner of the world. By contrast, chimpanzees have remained in the same corner of Africa for research the last 5 million years, lacking the cognition to produce the technologies on which migration depends. The loss of vandalism of public essay game, brought about by changes in climate, competition from other species, etc., is a common problem faced by be a planet essay, many species.
Not all species survive. Those that do are rescued by evolution. Over the course of generations, survivors adapt to a new diet. But humans, when their supply of game collapsed, were not rescued by evolution, nor did they slowly adapt to a new diet over the course of generations. Humans changed their technology. Rather than foraging for plants and of public property, animals, they planted the former and domesticated the latter.
A cognitive change. A change based on intelligence, not evolution. Humans were able to make this change because of their abstract understanding of research causality. They were able to of public property recognize that seeds planted in research on employee programs the earth would grow into plants. Is The Hunter-Gatherer Brain Different From The Modern Brain? Though whether humans have continued to evolve was once a controversial issue, today it is no longer in doubt.
Genetic modifications have definitely occurred since humans turned to property essay agriculture in the past 10,000 years. The best documented modifications are in the digestive system, and in research fellowship the immune system. The rise of dairy farming between 5,000 and 10,000 years ago, caused a genetic modification that produced lactose tolerance in some adults. The change is confined to humans who populated areas in which dairy farming flourished; in parts of Europe mainly. Disease too has caused genetic changes. People with genotypes that confer resistance to a disease will have more offspring; the resulting natural selection will lead to an increase in the frequency of those who have the resistance-conferring genes.
Though malaria is a scourge of vandalism mankind, it did not become one until after the invention of farming. The clearing of forests left pools of persausive essays on why outsourcing standing water in which mosquitoes could breed. Several genes have alleles that produce resistance to vandalism of public the malaria. About 6,000 years ago, one appeared in on employee wellness programs Africa; the other which appeared in southern Europe, the Middle East, and India, is estimated to be about 3,300 years old. The ability to identify a genetic modification, to vandalism property essay estimate its date of occurrence, to associate it with a physiological change, and to final project argument analysis relate the modification to a known environmental or cultural event, provides clear evidence that humans have evolved in the past 10,000 years.
But which if any of these changes have an of public property, effect on human brain and intelligence? Genetic changes in lactose tolerance and research wellness, disease resistance have no such effect. Are we to believe that we still have our stone age brain, that the modern human brain is the brain of the hunter-gatherer? There are two challenges to this view: First, the genetic change which is responsible for of public the DRD4 7R allele, and second, the gene ASPM. Essay! DRD4 7R is an allele associated with both the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the personality trait of novelty seeking. ASPM has for millions of years been a specific regulator of brain size in vandalism of public essay the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens. There is a suggestion that the DRD4 7R allele originated as a rare mutational event. Rare in that this mutation, unlike most, had a beneficial effect and essays final project comprehensive argument analysis, thus increased in frequency in human populations by positive selection.
Is the claimed ‘novelty seeking' beneficial? Even if we were to grant this claim, a predilection for novelty may have little effect on intelligence. If a novelty-seeker were to vandalism of public property essay tackle problems a conservative person would shun, would this change the abstractness of stored information? the computational skills involved in reasoning? our social competence (the accuracy of the mental states we attribute to the other one)? Probably not. Phylogenetic analysis of the gene ASPM has revealed ‘. its strong positive selection in research on employee the primate lineage leading to humans, especially in the last 6 million years of hominid evolution..' A contemporary genetic analysis now shows that ‘. one genetic variant of ASPM in humans arose only vandalism essay, about 5800 years ago and ‘. has since swept to high frequency under strong positive selection,' a suggestion that the human brain is still undergoing rapid adaptive evolution. The continued enlargement of the human brain would almost certainly lead to a change in human intelligence, but presently there is no evidence for either an enlargement of the brain, or a change in human intelligence. Paradoxically, there is tech skills, a suggestion of the opposite change, a reduction in the size of the human brain! This suggestion comes from the fact that domestication of animals has led to a reduction in the size of the brain, and vandalism of public property, some anthropologists argue that humans, in going from why pluto be a essay foraging to agriculture, themselves underwent domestication.
But this is a dubious claim. A farmer enjoyed none of the benefits of a domesticated animal. He was not fed, sheltered, and protected from predators. In the transition from vandalism of public forager to farmer, humans changed the kind of challenges they faced, not the research papers wellness programs number or severity of the challenges. All the distinctive facets of of public human intelligence are seen in the activities of humans when they lived as hunter-gatherers.
They talked. Women gathered in the morning to tell one another stories about yesterday's happenings; in some groups women punctuated their stories with visual symbols, iconic figures they drew in the sand. Men, sitting by camp fires in the evening, argued over essays project argument analysis the special traits of different animals. They honored first-hand knowledge over mere opinion. And with the same intensity we do today. Hunter-gatherers taught one another.
Parents taught their children the technologies on which their lives depended: How to butcher large animals, to turn animal hide into cloth. How to break ostrich shells into tiny pieces, then string them on leather thongs to make jewelry. How to make weapons, spears, arrows; and the poison for arrows from snake and spider venom, etc. Parents were the teachers because there were no schools or professional teachers. Schools did not emerge until written language, and written language did not emerge until agriculture. Property! Writing dramatically transformed human knowledge.
Because written documents could be scrutinized, as speech could not, they were repeatedly revised. Their revision lead to the elimination of redundancy, the compacting of essay arguments, and of public essay, the discovery of higher order generalizations. Research Papers On Employee Wellness! Under the impact of writing, informal knowledge, such as the hunter-gatherer's folk-knowledge of plants and animals, was systematized and turned into science. Often-told tales and vandalism property essay, stories became literature, and skills, informal calculations, became logic and vandalism property, mathematics. Final Project Argument Analysis! The specialized knowledge produced by writing culminated in schools and vandalism property essay, teachers, depreciating the argument parent's folk-knowledge, ultimately putting them out of work as teachers. In conversing with one another, in vandalism essay reading one another's minds, in research fellowship copying one another's actions, in teaching one another, humans profit from one another to an uncanny degree.
The complex social web that knits people together, a web still waiting to be fully unraveled, explains much of the advantage humans have over other species.
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