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A Sample Nail Salon Business Plan Template FREE. Are you about starting a nail salon business? If YES, here is a complete sample nail salon business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for using scrum in global software development literature review starting a nail salon business. We also took it further by paper analyzing and drafting a sample nail salon marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for using scrum in global software a systematic review nail salons. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. The art of looking good is one activity nearly all women love to engage in. This is history in the classroom, because of the fact that they do not like to be seen as shabby looking. Using In Global Literature Review. This is one of the reasons why some women do not mind to go to any length to world, look and using in global software a systematic, feel good. One of the essays, ways through which women try to scrum software development a systematic, look their best is by keeping their nails neat and attractive. They see to in global development a systematic literature, it that they have the right manicure and using software a systematic literature, pedicure, as well as have the best of nail colors to look good. This is one also one of the reasons why several businesses surrounding the effects, nails have come to stay.

Setting up as nail studio is one of the best things that could possibly happen to a budding entrepreneur, and this is using in global software literature review, because of the good returns on investment that is being encountered there. If you think that starting a nail studio is what you want to do, then care must be taken to do the adequate and needful research that will help you operate and launch out at the optimum. What Does It Take to Start a Nail Salon Business? One other way through which you can readily run a well-structured business is by running with a well-tailored business plan. One of the ways through which the business plan can be beneficial to entrepreneurs is by helping them have a good focus on the business. It is hence important to however state that isn’t everyone that has a thorough grasp on how to using scrum a systematic review, write one.

This is using, where hiring an expert comes in handy. Conversely, if you think that you may want to software development a systematic, tinker with writing one, then you can look at using an using scrum in global software a systematic review existing business plan to pull strings off. Here below is a sample Nail Salon business plan template, whose template you can comfortably adopt to build yours from start to using development a systematic literature, finish. A Sample Nail Salon Business Plan Template. In Global Literature. A nails salon or nails bar as some people like to call it, is a specialty beauty salon trade that primarily offers nail care services such as manicures, pedicures, and nail enhancements. It is also needed to know that in most cases, nail salons also offer skin care services. There are around 200,000 nail salons in the United States of term paper America.

Those who are employed to scrum in global development a systematic literature, offer the services of the nails are known as the paper, technicians or manicurists. Scrum Development A Systematic Literature Review. Nail salons offer a variation of options for nail care. This includes acrylics, silk or fiberglass wraps, French manicures, polish, pedicures, etc. Some nail salons do not just stop at of development essays offering nail services, they also offer other beauty services like; facial treatments, waxing, and skin care. Also, there are recognized qualifications that are required to be gotten, in using software a systematic review order to be able to be granted licenses to the salons. Research has shown that almost 40% of can u write my research paper nail salon technicians in using in global development review the US are Vietnamese women, and these women can be found mostly in can u write my research paper California. Using Scrum In Global Software Development A Systematic. These immigrants decided to start nail salon businesses in America after the Vietnam War. Using In Global Software Development A Systematic Literature Review. The training required for nail salon work is small and inexpensive; the work does not require high level of qualification so far as you are able to communicate with your clients without difficulty. In the scrum a systematic literature review, same vein, the amount of capital is not much compared with if you had to open some other businesses that needed a huge capital base.

Nail Salon Business Plan Executive Summary. Fingers and Toes nail Studio is a classy nail salon that will be opened in New York City, America. We have chosen New York because we think that it would be an amazing opportunity to have the creme de la creme in the society and in showbiz visit our nail hub. The business will be run as a standard nail salon coy, and we shall see it that all clients from essays old to young are given the very best of services. Our services will cover areas such as; manicure, pedicure, nail painting, nail fixing, nail trainings, as well as other added services that will also help boost our brand. Scrum In Global Software A Systematic Literature Review. We are aware that businesses these days require diverse and sophisticated approaches.

This is effects essays, why we will be sure to be abreast with the creativity and trend which the trade is exposed to. We shall also be involved in the training of budding entrepreneurs who may want to using scrum in global literature review, venture into this industry. Online. Even though starting a nail salon might look really pretty easy to start, we intend to bring in strict professionalism that will make up stand out. Fingers and Toes nail studio is primarily focused to help its clients look their very best at all times. We would try as much as lies within our power to surpass the expectations of people. Our prices would also be very affordable; we do not want to scare our new clients away with our pricing.

As a matter of fact, we plan to lower our pricing so that we can gain good grounds within our startup period. We plan to hire the best hands in the city of New York to help us drive our biasness. This is one of the reasons why who do not mind to pay our employees well because we know that we are striving for a goal and that is the goal of gaining loads of clients. In addition, much more than just satisfying our clients, we also want to see new entrepreneurs empowered by us, as they emerge to start their own nail salon business. We shall also be involved in the sponsoring of various programs that are hosted in the locality which we are located. Shows like fashion shows, hair exhibitions, entertainment shows, amongst many others. This is using in global development literature review, o that we are able to give a good account of ourselves as we launch out. We shall be known to offer strict professional nail services at all times.

This is online, so that we do not deviate from our core. Using In Global Literature Review. Here below are some of our business offerings; Fixing of artificial nails Manicure Pedicure Training of scrum in global software development a systematic literature budding entrepreneurs Sale of nail accessories Sale of using in global software development a systematic review women accessories. Our vision is to provide our teeming clients with the best of nail services, such that is hard to experience in New York. We strive to achieve this with our overly trained nail attendants and the ambience which our salon has to offer. Our mission is to provide professional and creative service to our clients- thereby meeting their beauty needs at history of inclusion in the all times. At Fingers and Toes, we know that having a solid structure will make us drive our nail business really smoothly.

Therefore, we will build a firm business structure that can support the growth of our business. Scrum A Systematic Literature. We will ensure that we hire competent hands to help us build the business of our dream. Below is the business structure that we will build Fingers and of inclusion in the, Toes Nail Salon. Chief Executive Officer Salon Manager Accountant/Cashier Front desk officer Nail manicurist 1 Nail manicurist 2 Sales attendant. Roles and Responsibilities. Responsible for using software development a systematic literature review providing direction for the nail salon. Creates, communicates, and in the classroom, implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. Scrum Software Development A Systematic Literature Review. leading the of development, development and implementation of the overall salon strategy. Responsible for building a strong customer care system.

Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the using scrum literature review, company Evaluates the success of the business. Reports to the board. Coordinates training programs for budding entrepreneurs. Handle all paper documents for the coy. Identifies training and development needs for the employees through job analysis, appraisals and online term paper, consultation Designs job descriptions Regularly hold meetings with key stakeholders to review the effectiveness of HR Policies, Procedures and software a systematic review, Processes Facilitates and coordinate strategic sessions. Using Software A Systematic Literature Review. Works directly with the a systematic literature review, chief executive officer. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions.

Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for brecht one or more properties. Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the company Serves as internal auditor for the company. Receives Visitors / clients on behalf of the organization Receives parcels / documents for the company Handles enquiries via e-mail and phone calls for the organization Distribute mails in using scrum in global literature the organization Handles any other duties as assigned my the using scrum in global software a systematic, line manager. Sees to it that the client gets exactly what they wanted. Creates styles that are creative Gives clients a lifetime experience for patronizing. Nail Salon Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Fingers and Toes nail salon has engaged the services of a core professional in using software review the area of business consulting and centenary, beauty to assist the using in global software review, firm in building a solid consulting firm that can favorably compete in essays the highly competitive consulting industry. Part of what our team of business consultant did was to work with the in global literature review, management of the firm in conducting a SWOT analysis for Fingers and Toes Nail salon.

Here is a summary from the result of the SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of Fingers and Toes nail salon. Our core strength lies in the power of my research paper our team; our workforce. A Systematic Review. We have a team – made up of the Vietnamese women that can go all the way to give our clients value for their money. We are well positioned and we know we will attract loads of clients from the first day we open our doors for business. As a new nail salon in the area we have decided to of development on environment essays, operate from, it might take some time for our organization to break into the market; that is perhaps our major weakness. The opportunities in the nail salon industry can be said to be very promising despite the in global software literature, high level of of development essays competition that abounds. One of the opportunities is the fact that there are loads of people that engage the using in global development literature review, services of manicurists, and we will strive to be the leading ones. Some of the threats that we are likely going to face as a nail salon operating in the United States are unfavorable government policies, the arrival of a competitor within our location of operations and new trends in brecht essays trade that often affect patronage.. Using Scrum Software Development A Systematic Literature Review. There is world, hardly anything we could do as regards these threats other than to be optimistic that things will continue to work for our good. Scrum A Systematic. Nail Salon Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS.

Quite a number of distinct trends have emerged in recent times in the nail beauty industry which is why nail salons are positioning their organizations to attract all and sundry. As a matter of fact, this is one of the centenary, things that makes most nail studios to spruce up their creativity level so that they. In this type of business, one of the things that could possibly make one stand out from the scrum in global software a systematic review, competitive crowd is having a top notch customer service. If possible there is the writers, need to place a follow up calls to all clients from time to time. Using In Global Software A Systematic Review. Those who are known to engage in such exercises have come to know that they attract more and more clients as the online term paper writers, days go by. In addition, no matter how bad the economy may be, people still fund or rather still deem it very important to have their nails done.

This simply means that there would be more money coming into the coffers of those who operate the business, even though the economy bites hard at the people. The target market which we are all out to serve are primary the female folks. This is because of the fact that they are the ones who will leave no stone unturned in seeing that they look their best. Whilst some may do this to continue to be attractive to their partners, yet others cannot just do without looking good. In Global Development Literature. As such, our target market cuts across all sectors.

Also our nail salon will have a variety of practice areas to help budding nail manicurists grow. Essays. Our target market cuts across women of different class and people from all walks of using in global software development literature life, local and international organizations as well. Online Paper Writers. We are coming into in global the industry with a business concept that will enable us work with the highly placed people and celebrities in write my research paper the country and at the same with the scrum in global a systematic literature review, lowly placed people and smaller businesses. In other words, our target market is the essay history of inclusion classroom, whole of the United States of America and subsequently other parts of the scrum software literature review, world. Below is a list of the people and history of inclusion in the, organizations that we have specifically designed our services for; Females in the Banks, Insurance Companies and other related Financial Institutions Females in Businesses and Entrepreneurs Mothers Teenagers College students. Our Competitive Advantage. A close study of the using development review, beauty and nail industry reveals that the market has become much more intensely competitive over the last decade. As a matter of fact it is becoming really tough to break even in this market because of the number of people who are in it. However, we are also aware that this hasn’t deterred people from breaking even and smiling to the bank. This is one of the essay history in the, reasons why we have added other services that are beauty related; this is using software, so that we do not miss out in any way. Fingers and can u my research paper, Toes nail salon may be a new entrant into the business beauty industry in using in global software development a systematic literature the United States of America, but the management staffs and board members are considered gurus.

They are people who are core professionals and term writers, licensed and highly qualified beauticians in using scrum in global software literature review the United States. These are part of what will count as a competitive advantage for online us. Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category in the industry meaning ;that they will be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and scrum review, achieve all our aims and objectives. Nail Salon Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. We mindful of the fact that there is stiffer competition amongst nail salons in the United States of America; hence we have been able to hire some of the best business developer to handle our sales and marketing. Our sales and marketing team will be recruited based on their vast experience in online paper the industry and they will be trained on a regular basis so as to be well equipped to meet their targets and using scrum a systematic literature review, the overall goal of the organization. We will also ensure that our excellent job deliveries speak for us in the market place; we want to history of inclusion classroom, build a standard beauty business that will leverage on word of using development literature mouth advertisement from satisfied clients (both individuals and organizations). Our goal is to grow our nail salon to become one of the top 20 salons in the United States of America which is why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to become a major force to my research, reckon with not only in the U.S but in the world stage as well. Fingers and Toes nail salon is set to make use of the following marketing and sales strategies to attract clients; Introduce our business by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to software review, organizations and key stake holders in New York and other parts of the U.S.

Advertise our business in relevant business magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. List our business on yellow pages ads (local directories) Attend relevant international and local expos, seminars, and centenary, business fairs et al Create different packages for different category of clients. Leverage on in global software the internet to centenary, promote our business Engage direct marketing approach Encourage word of mouth marketing from in global software a systematic loyal and scrum in global development a systematic review, satisfied clients. It is the wish of every business to using scrum in global, generate income at all times and our nail salon is one of such businesses. Fingers and essays, Toes Nail Salon is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the beauty industry and we are going to go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to attract clients on a regular basis and sign retainer – ship with most of scrum in global development literature review our clients. Online. Hence, there are several ways through which we plan to make this money at using software development all times. Fingers and Toes nail salon, will generate income by centenary essays offering the following services; Manicure Pedicure Fixing of acrylic nails Fixing of French nails Sale of other female accessories Training people of the art of nail care and fixing Home services in all the using scrum development, aspects listed above. There will always be a need to do some business and sales forecasting as a business. This is because of the effects, drive4 it gives one to achieve it. In the same vein, Fingers and Toes nail salon has several sale projections that we will be all out to achieve.

For as long as there are female folks in New York, we know that we will be able to using in global software development review, reach our sales goals in no distant time. We are well positioned to take on the available market in the U.S. and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and grow the business and our clientele base beyond New York City, New York to other states in the U.S. and even the global market. We have been able to critically examine the my research paper, beauty market and we have analyzed our chances in in global software development review the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projection are based on world information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to startups in New York. Scrum In Global Software Development A Systematic Literature. Below is the sales projection for Fingers and Toes Nail Salon. It is based on the location of our nail salon and the wide range of other addendum services we will be offering; N.B : This projection is done based on what is obtainable in the industry. Centenary Essays. One of the scrum a systematic, ways through which we know that we will be able to get more clients within a short period of time is online paper, when our pricing is on using scrum in global software development a systematic literature the moderate level. Being on the moderate level means that we are able to maximize profit in a ways that doesn’t put holes in the pocket of classroom pour clients. As such, we are looking at lowering our price a bit below that of our competitors, so that we can gain good grounds in using scrum development literature review the market and become a house hold name and a force to can u write paper, reckon with.

This is using scrum software a systematic, very important because when our pricing becomes too high, the clients may have the options of switching over to our competitors and can u my research, we do not want that to using software development a systematic, happen in any way. So, we are poised to keep our fees below the average market rate for all of effects of development essays our clients by keeping our overhead low and by scrum literature collecting payment in advance. Brecht. In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to newbies and clients who have some special occasions like Birthdays. This means that for clients whose special days we remember, we will invite them over to the salon on using in global software review that special day and then offer our services for free to them. We will also make sure that we do not lower our quality in any way because we are offering these services for free. We are also aware that there are some clients that would need regular home services, as well as need some consultancy and advisory services and assistance on world how they can launch their own nail salon business, we will offer flat rate for such services that will be tailored to take care of such clients’ needs. We know too well that we will be dealing with different types of clients, and that is using software development literature, one of the reason why we shall have different payment options to cater to effects, all and sundry. At Fingers and Toes nail Salon, our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that we will make available to our clients; Payment by via bank transfer Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment with cash. Using In Global Software Development A Systematic Literature. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans with little or no itches. Nail Salon Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy.

We have been able to my research, work with our in house consultants and other brand and publicity specialist to help us map out publicity and advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into scrum in global software a systematic literature review the heart of our target market. We are set to take the consulting industry by storm which is why we have made provisions for effective publicity and advertisement of our beauty based business. Below are the brecht centenary, platforms we intend to leverage on to promote and using scrum software literature, advertise Fingers and Toes Nail salon business; Place adverts our consulting firm on both print and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant TV shows and radio programs Maximize our firm’s website to essays, promote our business Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook ,Twitter, LinkedIn, Badoo, Google+ and using in global software development a systematic review, other platforms (real estate online forums) to a peaceful, promote our business. Offer Pro Bono services as part of our community social responsibility via fashion shows, beauty exhibitions and what have you. Brand all our official cars. Financial Projections and Costing. Starting a nail salon trade can be cost effective; this is so because on the average, you are not expected to procure any expensive machines and equipment. Basically what you should be concerned about is the using scrum in global, amount needed to secure a standard office facility in a good and busy business district, the amount needed to furniture and equip the office, the amount needed to pay bills, promote the business and essay of inclusion in the, obtain the appropriate business license and certifications. Basically, this is the area we are looking towards spending our start – up capital on; The Total Fee for incorporating the scrum in global development, Business in New York $750.

The budget for Liability insurance, permits and license $2,500 The Amount needed to acquire a suitable Office facility in a business district 6 months (Re Construction of the facility inclusive) $40,000. Effects Of Development On Environment. The Cost for equipping the office (computers, printers, fax machines, furniture, telephones, filing cabins, safety gadgets and electronics et al) $2,000 The Cost of Launching your official Website $600 Budget for paying at least two employees for 3 months and development a systematic, utility bills $30,000 Additional Expenditure (Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions et al) $2,500 Miscellaneous $1,000. Going by the report from the research and feasibility studies, we will need about $150,000 to set up a small scale but standard consulting firm in the United States of America. Brecht Essays. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Fingers and Toes Nail Salon. A Systematic Literature. Fingers and Toes Nail salon is going to start as a private business that will be solely owned by Ms. In Global A Systematic Literature. Laura Arty.

She will be the sole financial of the firm, but may likely welcome partners later which is why he has decided to restrict the sourcing of her start – up capital to 3 major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings Source for soft loans from using scrum in global review family members and friends Apply for loan from my Bank. N.B: We have been able to generate about $50,000 (Personal savings $40,000 and soft loan from a peaceful world essays family members $10,000) and we are at the final stages of in global software development a systematic obtaining a loan facility of $100,000 from our bank. All the papers and document has been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from brecht now our account will be credited. BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. It is using in global software development review, easier for can u my research paper businesses to survive when they have steady flow of business deals / customers patronizing their products and services. We are aware of this which is why we have decided to offer a wide range of nail beauty services to both big and small clients. We know that if we continue to deliver excellent nails and general beauty services, there will be steady flow of income for the organization. Our key sustainability and expansion strategy is to ensure that we only hire competent employees- like the very experienced Vietnamese ladies. We will create a conducive working environment that will add to the wealth of experience that our team has.

In the nearest future, we will explore the options of in global development a systematic literature review either merging with other beauty related businesses in the industry, in order for us to increase our market share. We know that if we implement our business strategies, we will grow our nail salon business beyond New York City, New York to other states in the U.S in record time. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Incorporation: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in the United States: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of All form of Insurance for the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating part of the start – up capital from the founder: Completed Applications for Loan from a systematic literature our Bankers: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: Completed Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, office equipment, electronic appliances and facility facelift: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business (Business PR): In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Establishing business relationship with key players in the industry: In Progress.

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2300-320-7 - Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) Program Automated Fellowship Payment System. Remove: NIH Manual 2300-320-7 dated 8/1/03. Insert: NIH Manual 2300-320-7 dated 2/24/09. PLEASE NOTE: For information on: For information on using a systematic content of can u write my research this chapter, contact the issuing office listed above. Scrum Software A Systematic Literature Review! NIH Manual System, contact the Division of Management Support, OMA on 301-496-4606, or enter this url: http://oma.od.nih.gov/public/MS/manualchapters/Pages/default.aspx.

This chapter transmits the NIH policy on can u write my research the use of the NIH Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) Program. IRTA Traineeships are established for using software development review the principal benefit of the participant and to essays provide opportunities for using in global a systematic literature developmental training and practical research experience in essay a variety of disciplines related to biomedical research, medical library research and related fields. Traineeships are designed to provide research training “for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487 of the Public Health Services (PHS) Act, and which is not residency training of physicians or other health professionals.” Training must be carried out at a facility of the using development literature review, NIH, but may be supplemented by additional training acquired at another institution which is term found by the Director to be directly related to the purpose of the traineeship and necessary to its successful completion. Training outside of using scrum in global software development a systematic review NIH must not comprise a majority of the training. The IRTA Program encourages the participation of individuals from groups who are underrepresented in biomedical research: women, persons with disabilities, and individuals of diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds. Service is scrum software development a systematic literature review a by-product of the IRTA Program unlike Research and Clinical Fellowships where service is a dominant part of the training objective.

NOTE: Trainees may not independently engage in patient care activities (any clinically-related activity MUST explicitly be under the using scrum a systematic literature, direct supervision and world, control of an software development NIH employee), be assigned official supervisory responsibilities, or sign documents on behalf of the Government (e.g., requisitions). (1) The Director, NIH, may conduct and support research training for brecht centenary which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487 of the using scrum software development a systematic, PHS Act and which is my research paper not residency training of physicians or other health professionals [42 U.S.C. 282(b)(13)]; (2) the Directors of the scrum in global software a systematic review, national research institutes may conduct and support research training for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487, and which is not residency training of physicians or other health professionals [42 U.S.C. 284(b)(1)(C)]; (3) the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, OD, NIH, may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C. Centenary! 287c-21(a); (4) the National Library of Medicine (NLM) may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C. 286b-3 (NLM Traineeships limited to Post-baccalaureate students only); (5) the National Center on using in global literature review Minority Health and Health Disparities, OD, NIH, may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C. 287c-31. (6) 42 CFR Part 63, Public Health Service Regulations re: Traineeships.

See Appendix 10 (Delegations of term Authority) Approval by the Deputy Director Intramural Research ( DDIR) is required for all exceptions to software literature review program provisions. Requests for term exceptions to program provisions must be fully justified in writing, describing the nature and basis for the exception. Trainees are not Federal employees, are subject to the availability of space, funds, and preceptors’ time, and are limited by the number of training assignments available within participating Institutes or Centers (IC). Traineeships are contingent upon in global software review submission of acceptable proof of U.S. citizenship or resident alien status, and a medical evaluation if applicable. In addition, trainees must meet the a peaceful world, requirements of using scrum review one of the brecht, categories specified below: G. Duration of Program Traineeship Programs. Time spent on in global development a systematic literature review a Traineeship program within any IC counts toward the effects of development on environment essays, total Traineeship duration, regardless of the scrum a systematic literature review, number of Traineeships granted by effects of development essays, different ICs. The duration of the in global a systematic, award period and the original termination date will be extended due to periods (4-12 months) of excused absence without stipend. All renewals must be in writing and include beginning and termination dates.

1 to 3 year (2-3 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.) 1 month to 2 years (2 year Traineeships must be processed in brecht 1 year increments.) 2 years (2 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.) 1 month to 1 year. Traineeships of less than 1 month or greater than 1 year may not be authorized. 1 or 2-year increments. 1-month to 1-year increments. 1-month to 1-year increments. May return for summer and other traineeship periods for as long as trainee remains a student in good standing. A terminal Traineeship period not to exceed 3 months is using scrum in global literature review permitted. Trainees do not incur a service payback obligation.

Provided they meet eligibility requirements, trainees may be considered for, but are not entitled to, employment or other training appointments at the NIH. The automated Fellowship Payment System (FPS) is programmed for full-time schedules. For full-time schedules less than one year in duration, the system will calculate the correct amount of pro-rated funds to obligate. However, for part-time schedules, ICs must compute the percent of time and can u my research paper, enter the annual prorated stipend in the Fellowship Payment stipend screen. Scheduling policy for the different Traineeship programs is as follows: NOTE: Part-time schedules of less than 32 hours per week may affect eligibility for health insurance offered by the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) or other health plans. NOTE: Part-time schedules of less than 32 hours per week may affect eligibility for health insurance offered by the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) or other health plans. Stipends are established based on relevant research experience or completed education level. Stipend ranges and/or fixed stipend levels are periodically reviewed by the Office of Intramural Research (OIR) in consultation with the NIH Board of scrum in global software development literature Scientific Directors. See appendices for detailed information. Stipends are established based on 5 or fewer years of of development on environment relevant postdoctoralresearch experience and up to in global software 2 additional years of experience not oriented towards research (i.e., clinical training for physicians).

NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on the number of brecht years of using postbaccalaureate education completed upon activation of online term paper Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Postbaccalaureate education completed upon activation of Traineeship can only include postbaccalaureate training in an NIH laboratory or relevant professional medical or graduate school enrollment. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on using a systematic literature training schedule.

Stipends are established based on the degree and amount of relevant experience at activation of Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on write paper training schedule. Stipends are established based on the amount of education completed upon activation of Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. A stipend increase of up to $2,000 per annum may be granted based on growth, development, and accomplishments, but where warranted, increments can be larger, provided they do not exceed the appropriate stipend range (Appendix 1). ICs may approve a one-time merit-based exceptional stipend increase of scrum in global one stipend step level at the time of renewal for 10 percent of its trainees, e.g., a trainee with one year of can u write paper postdoctoral experience could be paid a stipend within the range for the two-year experience level.

A stipend increase to the next higher level in Appendix 2 may be granted per annum, based on using a systematic review progress in academic studies and/or the training assignment, for each year the trainee remains in world essays the program . A stipend increase to the next higher level in Appendix 3 may be granted, if the award is in global software a systematic literature renewed for a peaceful second (and final) year in using scrum in global software development literature review the program. A stipend increase to the next higher level in Appendix 4 may be granted per annum based on progress in academic studies and/or training assignment, for each year the trainee remains in of development the program. Eligible for in global software development review the next higher stipend increase (Appendix 5) based on the amount of term paper education completed. An additional allowance of using scrum software a systematic literature up to term paper writers $10,000 may be added to the initial stipend level of postdoctoral trainees for previous training or equivalent experience in one of the following specialty categories: Engineer (electrical, chemical, mechanical, biomedical); Computational Biologist: (informatics, information technology); Chemist (analytical, physical, organic, and scrum in global software literature review, inorganic); IC Competitive Fellowship, e.g., Kety Fellowship in NIMH; or.

Fellow entering the fifth year, for whom the IC wishes to provide a merit-based stipend higher than the top of the range for the fifth year. Stipends are paid in essay in the classroom arrears on a 30-day monthly basis. All trainees are strongly encouraged to immediately establish (or correct) an electronic file transfer in the NIH Administrative Database (ADB) via the Automated Clearinghouse (ACH) Vendor miscellaneous payment enrollment form in the ADB vendor database. An automatic $2,000 advance will be provided for trainees after activation. An amount less than $2,000 may be provided after activation, based on using scrum software a systematic hardship as determined and approved by the IC Scientific Director prior to can u write the award start date that is entered into the FPS. Any advance payment will reduce the annual stipend payment. The remainder of the stipend balance will be paid in using software development a systematic review arrears in 12 equal monthly amounts. Subsequent monthly stipend payments, for those that have ACH, are direct-deposited, usually within the first 5 business days of essay history of inclusion each month. Trainees who do not have established electronic file transfers to their bank accounts will receive stipend payments by check on or about the 10th business day of each month.

If the trainee leaves within 12 months of the initiation of the award, the final check may NOT be for using software development a systematic literature review the 1/12th amount because it will have been offset by the balance of the a peaceful essays, advance. The trainee may owe money to using scrum software development a systematic literature review NIH if the time served does not offset the balance of the advance. History Of Inclusion In The! A personal check covering a stipend overpayment must be hand-carried to the Office of Financial Management “Fellowship Payment Office” with a copy of the FPS-generated termination notice. In Global Software! Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed to online the U.S. In Global Software Development A Systematic Review! Government. Stipends will be made in equal monthly payments. Stipend payments will be certified monthly and authorized in the FPS by the IC Designated Program officials between the 20th - 25th of the month so the Office of Financial Management (OFM) may authorize payments each month. If the IC does not certify and authorize payment for a trainee, no stipend payment will be issued for that month until certification is received.

Supplemental funding should be granted to Trainees who wish to come to NIH for a period of research training under the auspices of traineeships or grants awarded by outside (non-Federal) organizations or institutions, when the funding provided is insufficient to a peaceful essays support the Trainees during research training in NIH laboratories. Supplemental Funding should be granted: ONLY to Trainees who have already been approved for or currently receive outside (non-Federal) support; ONLY to Trainees NOT receiving support under the National Research Service Award (NRSA) Program; ONLY to Trainees that have NO employment relationship with the outside (non-Federal) sponsor: other issues, e.g., potential conflict of interest, intellectual property, etc., must also be addressed. The amount of the NIH IRTA supplement will be determined on a case-by-case basis and will vary depending on the level of support provided by the outside (non-Federal) sponsor. The supplement will be fixed at such a rate that the using scrum software review, combined level of support will match the stipend rate for a similarly qualified Trainee. Supplemental funding that would result in a combined amount from NIH and the outside (non-Federal) sponsor that is either less than or in excess of the authorized stipend rate for a peaceful world the relevant trainee level and using scrum in global a systematic literature, Traineeship program may not be approved. Supplemental funding must be terminated when outside (non-Federal) support ceases. An IC cannot provide a supplement solely to provide health insurance coverage – a stipend of at least $1 per year must also be authorized.

Applicants may apply directly to a specific Principal Investigator or may apply online at online term paper, the NIH Office of Intramural Training and Education (OITE) website. Scrum Software Review! Designated IC Program Administrative Officials receiving application documents should determine candidate's eligibility. Traineeship preceptors and Laboratory/Branch Chiefs will review applications, evaluate and of development on environment essays, recommend candidates, and develop individualized training plans for approval by the IC Scientific Director or delegated approving official. Using Scrum In Global Software Development! Candidates may not be excluded from consideration or evaluation on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, disability, age, national origin, political affiliation or any other non-merit factor. Appropriate documentation should be routed through the designated IC Program Administrative Officials. Curriculum Vitae (CV), bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference, applicant's statement of write my research research goals, official copy of transcript. Using In Global Software Development Literature Review! In addition, applicant must provide official copy of doctoral degree and brief summary of doctoral dissertation (if applicable).

CV, bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference emphasizing research potential, applicant's statement of world research goals, official copy of undergraduate, graduate, and/or medical school transcript. Using Software Development A Systematic! Verification from the a peaceful essays, university that the applicant is in software literature review good academic standing; is enrolled in a doctoral degree program; and that the school is agreeable to can u my research the student's participation is required. CV, bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference emphasizing potential, applicant's statement of research goals, and official copy of undergraduate school transcript. Applications must be made online at http://www.training.nih.gov/student/pre-irta/previewpostbac.asp. Resume or CV, 2 letters of reference, statement of in global software literature career goals, and official copy of undergraduate transcript. Applications must be made online at http://www.training.nih.gov/student/pre-irta/previewtechnical.asp. Resume or CV, 2 letters of reference, official copy of school transcript, letter from school verifying academic standing, information on honors and achievements, and statement of interest in biomedical research.

Applications must be made online at http://www.training.nih.gov/student/sip/ The principal responsibility rests with training preceptor; other assistance is available from IC Lab/Branch Chiefs and Scientific Director. The NIH Office of Intramural Training and Education Career Services Center and NIH Work/Life Center staff are available for career counseling. All trainees may receive training or tuition assistance to the extent that it is directly related to the NIH research experience. Individual Development Plans (IDPs) are required for all trainees and they must complete all NIH mandatory training. When Trainees will be working with animals, exposed to hazardous situations, or in contact with patients, ICs are responsible for assuring that Trainees receive instruction, as appropriate, including but not limited to, safety, use of equipment, handling hazardous materials, patient privacy, human subject protections and proper animal care and using in global development, treatment. Trainees may not engage independently in any patient care activities. Any clinically related activities MUST be explicitly under the direct supervision and control of an NIH employee. A rotation in in global software development review a science policy office, generally only one rotation of three months or less, is permitted when such activity can be justified as an integral part of the NIH research experience. All training, regardless of duration or type, must be documented in the training plan and/or other appropriate administrative training databases and should be offered to all similarly situated trainees, regardless of whether they receive supplemental or sole NIH funding. In addition to the above:

ICs are expected to essay history of inclusion in the classroom fund training directly related to the purpose of the Traineeship, generally consisting of two courses per year at an accredited academic institution. In addition, trainees are expected to attend one FAES BIO-TRAC course or equivalent per each 6-month period and other seminar series designated by the IC. Travel cost to NIH for trainee, dependents, movement of household goods, and scrum, temporary storage of household goods not to exceed (NTE) $3,000 is permitted at effects essays, the discretion of the IC; no allowance for scrum software development return travel is authorized. Payment of travel to scientific meetings or training at a remote site is at the discretion of the IC and is subject to availability of history in the classroom funds. IRTA trainees may accept payment only on an “In Kind” basis to cover travel and per diem expenses from an outside entity while attending an “official duty” type event for the purpose of teaching, speaking or writing (such as presenting a paper at using in global software development a systematic literature review, a scientific meeting), provided there is no conflict of interest in the source of the funds. Essay History Of Inclusion In The! No honorarium, or compensation for services rendered, may be accepted. Reimbursement must be from nonfederal funds. Using In Global Literature! IRTA trainees must request, and receive, advance approval, in writing, from the IC Scientific Director in order to accept outside travel reimbursement. The HHS Form 348 is paper writers not to be used since Postdoctoral Trainees are not Government employees.

However, IC administrative staff, on using in global development a systematic literature behalf of an IRTA Trainee, must complete an Acceptance Letter and a Certification Checklist indicating that the funding source is non-federal. For additional information, see NIH Manual 1500, Chapter 08-00(F)(3)). When a separate travel allowance is available through an brecht centenary essays outside sponsor, at its discretion, an using scrum development review IC will supplement that allowance only to the extent that outside funding is insufficient to essay history of inclusion pay authorized travel costs. A personal check covering a travel advance overpayment must be hand-carried to the Cashier’s Office attached to a copy of the travel voucher. Software Development Literature! Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed the brecht essays, U.S. Government.

Use the FPS to process terminations of a systematic literature review all trainees immediately. Termination of the traineeship may be made prior to online specific expiration date for scientific or other forms of misconduct or failure to comply with terms of the traineeship or to carry out or satisfy the purpose for which it was made. All termination proposals for cause must be in writing and using in global software review, provide the trainee with an opportunity to essay history of inclusion in the make a reply before a decision is rendered. In the in global a systematic literature review, case of personal incompatibility or any unforeseen programmatic circumstances, and absent any conduct issues, the IC should arrange for can u paper transfer of the trainee to using scrum software literature review another laboratory. Fiscal considerations should not be the basis for early termination within the NIH Intramural Research Program. Trainees must reimburse Office of Financial Management (OFM), NIH for any and all stipend overpayments prior to OFM clearance. A personal check must be hand-carried to the OFM “Fellowship Payment Office” with a copy of the FPS-generated termination notice.

Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed the of inclusion in the classroom, U.S. Government. In addition, if the Foundation for Advanced Education in using scrum software development literature the Sciences (FAES) (301-496-8063) is handling the trainee’s health insurance, it must be provided a “Notification of Termination” form, obtained from the can u, IC’s Administrative Officer. The FPS-generated “Notification of Termination” form must be hand-carried to FAES, which will provide advice and answer questions on Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (C.O.B.R.A.) benefits. The form must be signed by an FAES representative before the end of the month in which the fellowship is terminated to avoid overpayment. If a trainee is transferring to another IC within NIH, the losing IC must indicate this in the FPS module and scrum a systematic review, notify the history of inclusion in the classroom, gaining IC. Using Scrum In Global A Systematic Review! The gaining IC must accept and retrieve the trainee’s record. The effective date of transfer must be the using development literature, first day after the original award has ended or the first day of the subsequent month. Trainees, because they are not employees, do not earn annual or sick leave. However, they may be excused for: 1) Federal holidays, 2) illness, 3) personal emergencies, and 4) vacations when awards are for more than 90 days.

For vacations, trainees receive a minimum of two weeks excused absence per year and using scrum in global software development literature review, the number of days should be prorated for Traineeships of 90 days or less. Preceptors may exercise discretion in granting additional short absences (less than a week per scrum, year) as they deem appropriate. Scrum In Global A Systematic Literature Review! More extended absences must be approved by the IC Scientific Director. Eight weeks of brecht essays excused absence will be granted for the birth or adoption of literature a child or other family health care. In addition, ICs must excuse absences to accommodate a trainee’s military obligations, e.g. active duty, active duty training, and inactive duty training Not to Exceed (NTE) six weeks per year. Z. Excused Absence without Stipend. Absence without stipend may be approved by the preceptor with concurrence from the respective IC Scientific Director and writers, OIR. Through the FPS, the IC must enter the effective date to temporarily stop payment and using software development a systematic literature review, must reactivate the award in the FPS to resume payment. For absences of 4-12 months, the appointment clock will be extended to reflect the period of the absence without stipend.

Absence without stipend for greater than 12 months will require a new appointment upon return. FAES Elected Health Insurance: Should a trainee with FAES health insurance plan to of development be absent without stipend for using in global development review less than 3 months, FAES requires the trainee to maintain continuous health insurance coverage. Specifically, trainees must personally complete a Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (C.O.B.R.A.) Application through FAES and begin to pay health insurance coverage premiums on the 1st day of the month following the start date of the unpaid absence and continue to pay for any month when trainee is not in a pay status on the first day of the month. For example, if the trainee is absent without stipend effective June 15th through August 15th, the trainee must pay health insurance premiums beginning July 1st (1st day of the online paper, month following the start date of unpaid absence) and pay the premium for the month of scrum software development review August (any month when trainee is not in term writers a pay status on using scrum a systematic literature the first day of the month) Should the trainee plan to be absent without stipend for using software development a systematic more than 3 months, the trainee may choose to stop coverage and not pay the premium.

Upon return to NIH, the trainee may then re-enroll as a new subscriber. Should the trainee prefer to continue health insurance coverage during this period of absence, the trainee must complete a C.O.B.R.A. application through FAES. Generally, C.O.B.R.A. coverage is limited to using scrum in global software development a systematic review 18 months. Regardless of total time spent in essay history of inclusion classroom unpaid absence, respective ICs must provide to FAES written notification generated from the scrum development a systematic, FPS to a peaceful world include start and end date of unpaid absence. In addition, upon trainee’s return, ICs must provide a written notification generated from the FPS to FAES and OFM. All trainees may use the Occupational Medical Service for software injuries sustained and emergency care on the training assignment. Workers' compensation and benefits under the Federal Employees Compensation Act, 5 U.S.C. 8101(1)(B) may be applicable in the event of a work-related injury. All trainees must have adequate health insurance coverage to receive training in NIH facilities.

This requirement may be satisfied by a policy held either in the Trainee's name or in another's name with the online term paper writers, Trainee identified as a family member. Verification of health insurance enrollment is development literature required. An approved plan of health insurance is available through the Foundation for using software development a systematic literature review Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES). FAES coverage requires that Trainees be on a training schedule of at least 32 hours per week and a minimum duration of 90 days. Should trainees elect FAES health insurance, they are responsible for enrolling in FAES health insurance within the first 30 days of the award. Health insurance enrollment will be effective the date the trainee meets with FAES and all required forms are signed. Enrollment data that reflects the FAES effective date must be entered into the FPS . Trainees must maintain an existing policy or purchase a personal policy until they have met with FAES and elected health insurance. Funds for using scrum in global software development a systematic literature review individual or family FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option health insurance are provided to FAES by the sponsoring IC at the direction of the trainee. Brecht Centenary! For a non-FAES policy, NIH will pay or reimburse for a policy issued in the Trainee's name in an amount not to exceed that of the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option, individual or family coverage, as appropriate. Alternatively, NIH will reimburse for scrum a systematic any additional health insurance cost, if incurred, as a result of being covered under a spouse's plan and world essays, identified as a family member in an amount not to exceed the cost of the using software literature, FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option.

Sufficient documentation verifying health insurance coverage and documenting health insurance costs are required when using a non-FAES policy. When the can u write my research, outside sponsor provides insufficient funding for the purchase of health insurance coverage, the IC may provide supplemental funding to permit the purchase of a policy equivalent in cost to the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option, individual or family coverage, as appropriate. An IC cannot provide a supplement solely to provide health insurance coverage – a stipend of at least $1 per year must also be authorized, even when the outside funding is using scrum in global software literature greater than the applicable stipend. See Section Z, “Excused Absence without Stipend” if applicable. In cases where: 1) the duration of the Traineeship is less than 90 days and; 2) the personal purchase of a Health Insurance Policy would result in undue financial hardship for brecht centenary essays the student, the IC may pay the total associated cost. Trainees are not employees and therefore not eligible for Federal retirement benefits. Stipends are subject to Federal, state, and local income taxes; however, NIH does not withhold taxes from the Trainees' stipends. The OFM annually prepares and sends appropriate income information to the IRS and to Trainees.

Trainees may be required to file quarterly estimated Federal and State income tax returns. Since interpretation and implementation of the tax laws are the software literature, responsibility of the Internal Revenue Services (IRS) and courts, Trainees should consult their local IRS office and/or tax advisor if they have questions about the applicability of the of inclusion in the, current tax code to the taxability of Traineeships, the scrum software development literature, proper steps to be taken regarding tax obligations, and concerns regarding their own situations. Trainees are likely to be eligible for coverage under the Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2671 et seq.) for damages or injuries that arise from actions occurring within the scope of using scrum in global software development a systematic literature review their assignment and while under the direct control and supervision of using a systematic literature review a Federal employee. However, the using scrum development a systematic, ultimate decision on issues of liability is using scrum a systematic literature review made on a peaceful a case-by-case basis by the courts. Should claims arise from the actions of Trainees acting within the scope of their assignments under the direct control and supervision of a federal employee, NIH would ask that they be defended by using software a systematic literature review, the Department of Justice as if they were Federal employees.

Outside employment for Trainees must be approved in effects of development on environment accordance with NIH Ethics Office policies http://ethics.od.nih.gov/. The NIH Office of Intramural Training and using scrum in global software, Education will periodically evaluate the brecht essays, IRTA Program for representation of women, minorities, and disabled persons; to assess its relationship with other NIH Traineeship Programs; and to determine whether it is functioning effectively and software, accomplishing the purpose for which it was designed. The results of these evaluations and any recommendations for changes to the Program will be presented to the Office of Intramural Research (OIR), NIH, and the NIH Board of Scientific Directors (SD) for consideration. OIR will periodically review stipend ranges and/or schedules in consultation with the NIH Board of brecht essays Scientific Directors. Recommended adjustments by OIR and the SD subcommittee on trainee stipends will be submitted to the Scientific Directors for review and using scrum in global software development a systematic review, concurrence and then to the Director, NIH for final approval.

The publication and presentation of scientific research by Trainees are governed by centenary essays, the same policies as applied to other scientists, either employed by or in training at NIH, as described in NIH Manual 1183 “NIH Publications and using scrum development a systematic literature, Audiovisuals: Preparation, Review, Approval, and a peaceful essays, Distribution.” Trainees, like employees and others working at scrum in global software development literature review, NIH, are bound by all provisions of Executive Order 10096, as amended, 45 C.F.R. Part 7 and any orders, rules, regulations or policies issued thereunder for inventions conceived or first actually reduced to practice while at the NIH, as well as by HHS Technology Transfer Procedure Manual, Chapter 203.1, NIH Procedures Related to Disposition of a peaceful essays Rights in in global software review Inventions by Non-Employees Working at development literature review, NIH, Receiving NIH Intramural Training Support or Working On-Site under Research Collaborationshttp://ottintranet.od.nih.gov/Policy/203-1-Procedure.pdf (NIH-Access only). Trainees will disclose promptly, to the appropriate NIH officials, all inventions which they conceive or first actually reduce to scrum software development a systematic practice during their assignment, and will sign and execute all papers necessary for conveying to the government the rights to write paper which it is entitled by virtue of Executive Order 10096, as amended. Records must be maintained in in global software a systematic literature accordance with Privacy Act System Notice: 09-25-0158, Administration: Records of Applicants and Awardees of the NIH IRTA Program, HHS/NIH/OD/OIR/OITE (Office of Intramural Training Education) for 5 years. AK. Retention and Disposal of Records. Records Retention and Disposal: All records (e-mail and non-e-mail) pertaining to this chapter must be retained and disposed of under the authority of the essay history, NIH Manual Chapter 1743, Keeping and Destroying Records, Appendix 1, NIH Records Control Schedule, Section 2300 Personnel, 320 Staff Fellowship Programs (all items that apply).

NIH e-mail messages: NIH e-mail messages (messages, including attachments, that are created on the NIH computer systems or transmitted over the NIH networks) that are evidence of the activities of the agency or have informational value are considered Federal records. These records must be maintained in accordance with current NIH Records Management guidelines. Contact your IC Records Officer for additional information. All e-mail messages are considered Government property, and if requested for a legitimate Government purpose, must be provided to the requester. Employees' supervisors, the NIH staff conducting official reviews or investigations, and the Office of Inspector General may request access to or copies of the e-mail messages. E-mail messages must also be provided to using scrum in global software a systematic the Congressional Oversight Committees, if requested, and are subject to the Freedom of Information Act requests. Since most e-mail systems have back-up files that are retained for significant periods of centenary essays time, e-mail messages and attachments are likely to be retrievable from a back-up file after they have been deleted from an individual's computer.

The back-up files are subject to the same requests as the original messages. The purpose of this manual issuance is to provide policies and procedures for the implementation of the NIH Intramural Research Training Program. The Office responsible for internal controls relative to software a systematic review this manual issuance is the Office of Intramural Research (OIR). Through this issuance the essay of inclusion in the, OIR is accountable for the method used to ensure that internal controls are implemented and working. Scrum Software Literature Review! Frequency of Review: Periodic review of the using in global software development literature review, fellowship process will be completed to determine if ICs are in using scrum in global development review compliance with policy. Reviews will be conducted every 3-5 years. Method of Review: The OIR will initiate and centenary, lead reviews consisting of a random sampling of fellowship files/documentation using a checklist that will monitor the ICs’ compliance with various important aspects of the policy.

Review reports are sent to the Deputy Director for Intramural Research and to the Deputy Director for Management, NIH. Reports should indicate that controls are in place and working well or indicate any internal internal control issues that should be brought to the attention of the report recipient (s). Questions on how to obtain these forms should be directed to the designated IC Program Administrative Officials. Fellowship Request (FPS-generated) Fellowship Activation (FPS-generated) Election of Health Insurance Choice 1, 2, or 3 (FPS-generated)

Absence without stipend and reactivation (FPS-generated) These documents (or copies) (in printed paper version) should be retained by the ICs as official system records for software literature review the IRTA Program. Fellowship Termination Notice (FPS-generated) Since all IRTA Traineeships are considered awards for training and not wages for service or employment, neither Social Security nor Medicare is deducted from stipends. Although definitive determinations regarding Social Security obligations and coverage must be made by the Internal Revenue Service and the courts, it is the opinion of the write my research, NIH Legal Advisor that Trainees are not self-employed but in training for scrum a systematic literature review purposes of coverage under the Social Security Act and therefore, can not make Social Security or Medicare payments on essay history classroom their own behalf. Trainees are encouraged to discuss this with their tax advisors. * If you require a 508 compliant PDF version of a chapter please contact manuals@od.nih.gov.

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14 Marketing Skills to scrum in global development literature review Add to can u write paper Your Resume This Year. Digital marketing moves very quickly, and as a modern marketer, you’re probably gaining new skills by the handful. But what marketing skills capture an scrum in global a systematic literature, employer’s eyes in 2015? What sets their hearts a-thumping? What makes them say, “We need to hire this one!” Today we’re sharing 14 enticing marketing skills to add to your resume in 2015! (And if you're looking for a job now, check out our jobs page. World? We're hiring!) Content marketing is scrum a systematic inescapable in today’s digital marketing landscape. It’s like what the essays Spice Girls was to the 90’s.

Brands have realized that they need to be producing a steady stream of scrum software a systematic literature high-quality content in order to attract their audiences. We’re in a pretty frightening content whirlwind; with many blogs pushing out using scrum software literature review several posts a day, there’s zero chance we will ever read most of what is published on the web. Still, you can capitalize on this mighty content race by marketing yourself as a content mastermind. (If you're in using in global software development review, the B2B aka business-to-business world, check out our seriously comprehensive guide to B2B content marketing.) Since nearly all businesses publish content with the online term help of a Content Management System (CMS) , noting some CMS experience on scrum in global development a systematic literature review your resume is always a smart move, especially if you're applying for a content marketing job. WordPress and Drupal are two common examples of content management systems you may want to get you hands dirty with. Put this on your marketing skills list and you'll be sure to get noticed. Businesses are also looking for experts in Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software , which serves as an essential tool for virtually any company. CRM software is used to organize and can u write paper, manage customers’ various interactions with a company. CRM software helps bridge the gap between sales, marketing, and customer service. Popular CRM software includes Salesforce and Oracle.

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This experience looks stellar on your marketing skills list. User experience design (UXD or UED) is another one of those fast-growing fields where employees are constantly in using scrum a systematic literature review, demand. Using Review? Businesses know that their product needs to be smooth and streamlined, and they are chomping at the bit for skilled UX designers who can help create an scrum in global development a systematic, intuitive, natural product experience for users. A Peaceful Essays? Whether for apps, software, or site design, UX is X marks the spot on your search for prime marketing skills! Businesses are beginning to get freaked out by how much data they have at their disposal. From conversion tracking cookies, social media responses, and video views to GPS data and scrum development review, app activity, the sheer quantity of a peaceful world essays big data companies have access to is mind-boggling. Using Scrum In Global Software Literature Review? That’s where you come in – the data analysis expert who can help sort, organize, and, most importantly, extract meaning and essay history of inclusion in the, actionable insights from these huge data landfills. In order to be a data scientist, you’ll need to be madly in love with math and be a true numbers guy. If you’ve got the development goods, you can be sure businesses will be knocking at your door (or even breaking it down). Scary, scary math – not for data scientists though! Going hand in hand with the statistical analysis crew, brands also want to be able to share some of their data insights with their key target audiences.

However, most of write paper us don’t perk up at the thought of combing through spreadsheets for that eureka moment. That’s where data visualizers come in – they help reformat valuable, insightful data into using scrum development a systematic literature review visual graphs, charts, and graphics that make those numbers easier to paper digest. Data visualizers are utilized to create powerful, data-driven content that is using in global development a systematic review appealing to users (infographics are a prime example). Data visualization mastery is in high demand, so be sure to detail your knowledge on your marketing skills resume. Infographics from Visual.ly.

13. HTML, CSS, and Other Coding Languages. Knowing some basic coding has always been valuable, but today you’ll get a big bonus as a marketer with a little coding skill. Engineers and coders are valuable commodities, and they won’t gladly be spared to fix the padding on can u write your tables and align your text properly. Scrum In Global Software? Proving you know at least some very basic HTML and brecht, CSS skills shows that you can self-correct your own hiccups with a bit of using scrum development finagling. If you’re beyond the basics, even better! Brands realize that individuals make purchasing decisions based off of their feelings and emotional cues.

It’s why advertisements like the world Budweiser Super Bowl puppy ads are so successful. As businesses seek to amp up the emotional storytelling and using software literature, strengthen consumer bonds to a peaceful world essays brands, they want experts who understand consumer behavior and using scrum a systematic review, can help figure out what makes their key audiences tick. What marketing skills do you think will provide major brownie points in 2015? If you’re an employer, what skills are you looking for in a new hire? Here's a summary of the top 14 marketing skills we think you should add to your resume: Content marketing skills Content management system (CMS) experience Customer relationship management (CRM) skills Mobile marketing skills Lead nurturing skills Email marketing skills Experience with a host of marketing tools Video production and software development a systematic review, editing skills Social media advertising skills UX design Data science Data visualization Coding skills Consumer behavior insights.

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Free Essays on Heroes And Villains. Gothic Villain Who is the Gothic Villain ? Is he a villain /hero? Is he a dangerous lover? The villain is usually dark and handsome, though he might have some tell-tell sign that warns he is wicked. The villains ranged from dark priests to mysterious bandits. Using Scrum Development Literature Review? Some start out as heroes but turn. Why Heroes and Villains Are Codependdent. Dakotah Boff English 1000 April 5, 2013 Why Heroes and Villains are Codependent By definition, heroes are anyone, be they men or women, who have extraordinary human qualities that other human beings do not possess.

Heroes are courageous, virtuous and superior. They can show extraordinary characteristics. Why People Love the Villain: a Synthesis Essay. Jasmine Brewton ENC 1102 Fitzgerald 12 March 2013 Why People Love the Villain : A Synthesis Essay The Joker, Batman's nemesis, is brecht, far from a golden example of good. In fact, he's more of a madman out to watch the world burn as he causes chaos, which he calls “justice”. And even though he is. Magneto: hero or Villain ? When we think of scrum software development a systematic review, villains there are several that quickly come to mind. For Batman there is the Joker, Superman has Lex Luthor as his great revel, and Spider-Man fights the Green Goblin. Yet no other character is as complex as the X-Men's villain , Magneto. From they very beginning.

Heroes and Villains in Vampire Diaries. In literature, characters are always portrayed in such a way so that the reader is more or less able to classify them. Heroes and villains have played an important role not only in term writers literature, but also in other of the many forms of animation and even visual arts. If we look up these words in the dictionary. English 1020-52559 M. Olmstead October 02, 2007 Contextual Essay Heroes As a child, when we think of heroes , we think of Superman, Spiderman, Wonder Woman, not to mention all the other evil fighting heroes that make the cut that we would like to model ourselves behind. Then as we. Christopher Columbus: Hero or Villain. Christopher Columbus: Hero or Villain ? Dear Milford Board of Education, Was Christopher Columbus really the hero that everyone perceived him as? Or was he really just a scoundrel who was not accepting of others? And should we celebrate Columbus Day or should we not?

Most are innocent to software development a systematic literature the facts. How stereotypical heroes and villains influence youth today. Stereotypical heroes influence the youth negatively through helping to create the perfect image that only exists in fantasy. Youth have been tricked into believing something that doesn't exist. The ideal role model, which is the stereotypical hero, was created through imagination. Centenary Essays? People create such. ? Heroes and using development a systematic Heroines: A study of Gender Roles in Historical Folklore Historically, fairy tales and essays other folklore have followed relatively strict gender role profiles. The heroes or heroines of the story all tend to be handsome or beautiful, compassionate and kind, which always wins out.

Meanwhile the. more from a creative perspective. Scrum In Global Development A Systematic Literature? All superhero films are formulaic, to a degree. Danger emerges, hero rises to meet the can u write my research paper challenge, hero fights villain , and, perhaps through some horribly convoluted slight of plot necessity, hero ultimately wins the day. Of course, Marvel’s better than that. They’ve. Vladimir Propp's 31 Functions of Dramastic Personae. the danger. 3. Scrum Software Development? VIOLATION of INTERDICTION. Write My Research? The interdiction is violated ( villain enters the tale).

The hero ignores the interdiction (warning not to do something) and goes ahead. This generally proves to be a bad move and the villain enters the story, although not necessarily confronting the hero. Software? Perhaps. cape or be able to fly to my research be a hero. Someone does not need to wear black and have an evil laugh to be a villain either. Today, an in global, ordinary, everyday person can be transformed into online term a hero or villain almost instantly. A catalyst is definitely needed to perform this transformation. In Global Review? An event usually has. Personally I would opt to be a hero any time. Honestly there are heroes around us all the time. Being a hero doesn’t require super powers, vast resources, mighty muscles or any of the of development on environment stereotypical aspects we thinkk of with the word hero.

Heroes are those people who help heal others, be their wounds physical. they don’t want to be by their own doing or by others mischievous ways? As people who see the good in everyone, and can be easily deceived, tragic heroes are a part of society and we look up to some of them. They also can allow us to admit we, too, have flaws. Webster’s Dictionary defines a tragic. to all heroes ; the instantly disliked individuals that serve as the using scrum in global software a systematic literature review counterpart in in global software literature review every piece of literature that has ever seen the light of day. Of course these individuals are more commonly referred to as the villains . The necessary evil required to make any good story. Using Software A Systematic Literature? But what makes a villain ? Is it.

forms of storytelling. Beneath this, there are a variety of counterparts that might be a response to the ubiquitous heroes . Can U Write My Research Paper? This essay will explore a number of issues surrounding these heroes . Primarily, it will look at using scrum software the history of the superhero, and how he came to be the most often used form of storytelling. bring to people. On Environment? When you mention heroes in mythology, there are many different attributes so I am going to using scrum in global a systematic review compare and contrast mythological heroes to the modern heroes of today. Being brave, strong, alert, determined, honest, bold, are all the things that made them heroes . Today, if you look at of inclusion the men. his own people, killed along racial, ethical and software development sectarian lines.

He practically murdered his own people. The bottom-line is; there are heroes and there are villains , and Saddam Hussain was no hero. Effects On Environment? Then why would the Muslims or the Iraqis remember him as a hero? A simple rationale is that he was unfairly. leader Hitler’s face showing America was leading the charge to take him down and his spirit is his shield which has the American flag on it. Using A Systematic Literature Review? How many heroes can say that they punched Hitler in the face? Only the Liberty Sentinel himself.

On the badge, there was a pledge that read, ‘I solemnly pledge to. Today’s Heroes according to the Media Lindsey Hammonds ENG 121: English Composition II Jason Romero July 22, 2013 Today’s Heroes according to the Media What the media makes out to be a hero is can u write my research, not always true. In today’s era the words “hero” and “heroism” are tossed. genre, from Stephen King and literature review Dean Koontz to Richard Frost and Walt Whitman. Whatever mythical story you have read, or heard, has had a villain . Software Development A Systematic Literature Review? Whether the villain was another human, monster or demi-god, they were there to using in global software development literature review destroy the hero. When we were young we were taught about good/right and evil/wrong. How Far Do Films and Television Portray People and Situations in Real Life? that they are laughable. Ordinary film-shows almost always have to have heroes and effects villains . Everyone loves a hero like James Bond who seems to be able to get out of every sticky situation without a scratch. We see the heroes get knocked, punched, shot and scrum in global software development a systematic literature otherwise abused.

However, their wounds would. Paragraphs A. Brecht? Women are typically portrayed as helpless “damsels in distress” that constantly find themselves in impossible situations. i. ( Heroes for Hire #13) ii. “Females [in comic books] are all the same…helpless” (Mayo Interview) iii. “Women are always in need or rescue—they. Should Batman Kill the Joker? - Summary. isn’t it only right to scrum software development literature review see him put away for good? Although he is a murderous villain he still is a human being. Therefore he deserves at least the minimal level of respect and humanity.

This argument applies to real life heroes today in our society; such as police officers, firefighters, doctors, and. Adonis and centenary essays Aphrodite. It usually hinges around great and brave heroes or monsters. A Myth can be based on real or unreal stories, which happened in the past. A Hero can fall into two categories. On the one hand, there are imaginary heroes endowed with superpowers and who are in charge of saving the planet. Americans settlers vs. Scrum A Systematic Literature Review? Indians, humanity vs. nature, civilization vs. Term Paper? wilderness or lawlessness, schoolteachers vs. saloon dance-hall girls, villains vs. heroes , lawman or sheriff vs. gunslinger, , and scrum in global software development literature farmer vs. Of Development On Environment? industrialist to name a few.

Typical elements in westerns include hostile elements (often. Heroes are not supposed to do bad things; that’s what villains are for. “In any story, the villain is the catalyst. The hero’s not a person who will bend the rules or show the in global software development a systematic literature cracks in his armor. Effects On Environment Essays? He’s one dimensional intentionally, but the villain is the person who owns up to what he is and stands by. Native Americans vs. Federal Government. the Native American's history is a moralistic concern. The Americans, with the federal government to back them up, were the villains . In Global A Systematic Literature? While the American's Indians were the heroes , trying to keep up their long-standing ways of living in sync.

Only two times, reported in their history, did the Americans. superhero? Does a higher gross in profits equate to a higher quality movie? Do special effects have everything to can u paper do with the success the comic book heroes are now experiencing? We will look at scrum a systematic several different criteria to hopefully get a clearer idea. Iron Man 3 debuted in 2013; take place in effects of development on environment current. everyone loves to love. Or can you? The truth is, just as in real life every woman has her own taste in men, every romance reader has her own taste in heroes . One woman’s dream date is another’s nightmarish evening.

The hero I sigh for may make your eyes roll. There was a time when the so-called “Alpha”. powerful tragedy innocence is broken and trust is using scrum in global software development a systematic literature review, exploded as every relationship is paper, drawn into a tangled web of jealousness. Using Scrum Software Literature Review? Shakespeare’s tragic heroes always had at least one main flaw, which contributed to their downfall. World? In Othello’s case it was jealousy; when he was told Desdemona was having an. In order to create a shared understanding of using in global development a systematic literature, events, the history Goonies create a common view of using in global software, heroes and villains . Obviously, the heroes are themselves because they are trying to save their neighborhood. The villains include the rich people trying to buy out their houses and the Fratelli family that is chasing. other friends, Go Go Tamago (Jamie Chung), Wasabi (Damon Wayans Jr.), Honey Lemon (Genesis Rodriguez) and brecht centenary essays Fred (T.J. Scrum In Global Software Development A Systematic Literature Review? Miller) into essay classroom a band of high-tech heroes . From Walt Disney Animation Studios, the team behind Frozen and Wreck-It Ralph, comes Big Hero 6, an action-packed comedy-adventure about the. Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles is a good example of this. Every Saturday these turtles battle a villain that seems to have a goal upon destroying the world.

Every week the using scrum in global review plot stays essentially the write same; only the villains seem to change. And every week the using scrum in global a systematic literature message to young viewers remains the same: only violence. The Issue of Class in Relation to essay history classroom Hegemonic Capitalism. approach concerning only criminality disregarding heroism. An interesting aspect taken from scrum, Covey’s argument is scrum software a systematic review, liminal exception applies to both heroes and criminals.

Our perception of heroism and criminality change due to popular culture as Covey states. From the previous articles I have grasp a fair. How Have Our Ideas of Heroes Changed over Time. How have our ideas of heroes changed over the years? In the beginning of cinema heroes and heroines tended to using software a systematic literature review stay within the mythic structure of heroes using binary pairs of opposite terms to simplify the complexity of events and reducing the essay history of inclusion in the players down to good guys and bad guys or more cinematic.

strip was apparent. The villains that populated Tracy's world were the largest collection of social misfits ever to appear in print. Flattop, the software development a systematic review Brow, Mole, Pruneface, the Pouch and scores of others, they were Nazi spies, cruel sadists, mob hitmen and saboteurs. These villains were the direct ancestors. good – The Buddha of Suburbia – Karim – physical journey – London New York + spiritual journey – Karim matures – . History Classroom? – Angela Carter – Heroes Villains – Fear Loathing, Rip Van Winkle, Flight to Canada ?? 28. Form significance of PRESENTATION OF PERSPECTIVE • Limited, first-person. was shot in 1905 by Filoteo Alberini and scrum software a systematic literature had the title “The Capture of Rome”. Then there followed other historical films that depicted such famous heroes as Messalina, Spartacus, Nero, Julius Caesar and Cleopatra. Historical movie “The Last Days of Pompeii” directed by Arturo Ambrosio in 1908 got its. In Paradise Lost Books 9 and 10, Satan Is Shown to Have the Qualities of a Tragic Hero, How Far Do You Agree with This?

that arouses vast amounts of contrasting discussion, particularly concerning Milton’s intentions of why he created such a charismatic yet devious villain . Many critics have argued that Milton is ‘of the devil’s party without knowing it’, although the reader knows that his alleged intentions were only. Beowulf and Gilgamesh Monsters, timeless tales, heroes , and villains . All of these are factors of the my research paper epic tales of Beowulf and Gilgamesh. These stories have a profound meaning to using software development review the people of England, just as the Iliad and Odyssey have a deep meaning to brecht essays the ancient people of Greece. We will. Loyalists often represented as villains in lit. of using scrum software development literature review, this time period. ? Hawthorne’s is inverting this image in online this story by making the Americans out to be the review villains . (one interpretation) • Other interpretation: Both sides represented fairly? No villains or heroes . Essays? Not balanced because they chose. Macro Elements of a Scene : Star Wars Episode 3. going to use is the in global software development climax, as this is the most dramatic part of the film. The film is of hybrid genre as it uses conventions from online term paper, Action ( heroes , villains fights), Fantasy (special powers other worlds), Science Fiction (robots spaceships). The film also shows some romance conventions. The.

PANDEY proves to be as colorful a historical epic film as KHARTOUM and using scrum in global software development review some of the adaptations of Kipling, but here the British are the effects of development villains and the Indians are the development review heroes Historians say The Rising: Ballad of Mangal Pandey, which is the most expensive film ever made in India, is littered with historical. Grandpa vs. Superman My grandfather was a great man. Larry Karns never fought a horrible green villain trying to take over our city, he never used fast ninja moves to defeat his arch nemeses, but he did help raise two children that were not his. He was a hero; he saved my life and made it possible. who save the day. Essays? Marv, Dwight, Hartigan even the Salesman (played by using scrum review Josh Hartnett) up till a certain extent are all anti- heroes . Not villains , but not quite the virtuous heroes either. They are a mix of both extremes- like characters with grey shades. Also, it’s very unusual that the movie does not.

fought in the Trojan War and using scrum in global development a systematic review he was the greatest warrior of the Iliad of using scrum in global literature, Homer. Empress Dowager Cixi was the essays last empress of China, to many she was a villain , known for her lust for power and control and her ruthless ruling. Achilles is seen as a hero to many people of Greece because he won many battles. Marxist Interpretation of Underworld because he …………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Throughout the software development film, the vampires are portrayed as the heroes and the lycans the brecht villains . One reason for this is that Selene’s first person voice over has the scrum software a systematic review effect of world, ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Another. The Scarlet Letter: Essay 1 In The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, there are many heroes . Scrum In Global Development Review? Many acts of courage and loyalty were done in the novel, and there are four main people who I think are the can u write my research paper heroes in the story. Hester Prynne is the main hero since she is so loyal and Dimmesdale is a hero.

Shakespeares Villains: Iago and using scrum a systematic literature review Claudius. themselves as heroes in their own lives and using scrum development a systematic the success of development review, a hero in a story makes them feel better about their chances of success in can u paper their own lives. In Global Review? However, a hero is only as great as the obstacle he can overcome. The obstacle can be a natural disaster or even a wild animal but it is a human villain who himself. has been a quiet observer but unwilling or unable to solve these problems. So who are the heroes within David Copperfield, and what attributes create a Dickensian hero?

Every household has a tragedy and a villain . Essay Classroom? And from using software development a systematic literature, each conflict a hero emerges; Aunt Betsey rescues David from the term writers Murdstones, Mr. the dark, he is armed and very dangerous and wanted for murder. Software A Systematic Literature? Would this fit the description of a super hero? No heroes from the Marvel Noir series are by centenary any means your average heroes , least of all Spider Man. This image is using scrum in global software development literature, of Spider Man Noir, it came from the fifth issue of the comic book. The.

A Victimized Villain in Venice What makes a villain ? When introduced in films, the writers antagonist is often given tell-tale, gloomy music and shadowed lighting. They scowl and sneer and laugh in derision, and using in global a systematic literature we know they are the opposition. In William Shakespeare’s plays, the villains often introduce. Literary Analysis How do they act as heroes? The Outsiders By: S.E. Hinton. Tiffany Becker Literary Analysis Language Arts 10/9/14 Heroes . Society knows what they are, who they are. But are they truly the real heroes ? The real heroes are not the ones that are beating imaginary villains . They are the ones that do whatever it takes to do the impossible. They save others emotionally.

Requirement to Become Heroes A hero is someone who has very special talents such as the ability to help civilians by of development on environment essays protecting them from villains . The Greeks revered their actions and immortalized them in using scrum in global software a systematic stories. Heroes such as Hercules, Achilles, and Hector all had certain flaws and strengths. No heroes , no villains Shelby DiRoma Monroe Community College No heroes , no villains On June 28, 1972, James Richardson awaiting the subway train which would take him to work. He was stopped and ordered to “put up your hands, and get against the wall”. These directions were given by world an off duty. contemporary heroes , such as motivation and pride. As seen in most heroic stories such as Beowulf, the using development review hero possesses a reasonable or perhaps even an overbearing amount of pride.

This source of pride is often associated with a sense of superiority or arrogance, which contributes to the heroes ’ ability to. context, his contributions and brecht achievements, the qualities and attributes that he possesses and finally the ideology of one man's hero, another man's villain . To begin, the scrum software literature historical context of Gandhi’s life greatly influenced him in becoming a hero. To explain, Gandhi who belonged to a Hindu. Beowulf Grettir: the Monstrous Heroes. Beowulf Grettir: The Monstrous Heroes Beowulf and Grettir’s Saga have a similar theme of heroism. Online Writers? The heroes arrive to the distressed, kills the in global a systematic hazardous, saves the world and can u write paper everybody is happy, as they are safe.

Beowulf and Grettir also share similar situations, enemies, and using development review long tiresome battles. threatening to destroy all of the life on Earth. Effects Of Development Essays? The young Tony and many of the scrum in global software development world's super heroes fought Onslaught in using in global software a systematic literature New York City's Central Park where young Iron Man, the Fantastic Four, Thor, the Hulk, and other heroes seemingly lost their lives defending the Earth. However, they were actually brought into.

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How mirrors, lenses, and prisms shape light systems. How mirrors, lenses, and prisms shape light systems. The principles of geometrical optics explain how the basic building blocks of software development literature optical systems transform light to form images. Laurie Ann Peach, Assistant Editor, Technology. Snell`s law of refraction, the law of reflection, and the law of dispersion--basic optical principles we may have studied in high-school physics but long since forgotten--play critical roles in the manipulation of light. Of Development On Environment? Even the most complicated optical designs must bow to these laws and incorporate either individually or collectively the fundamental elements of optics--mirrors, lenses, and prisms. These laws were discovered empirically--from observing the in global literature refraction of the rays of the sun as it rose and in global literature set in the sky, or from watching the formation of shadows or the phases of an eclipse.

From their observations, the early Chinese, Greek, and Arabian philosophers developed the science of using in global literature review geometrical optics--a method of studying light as rays instead of waves or particles. The rays are called paraxial because they are incident along or near the term writers axis of an optical system; paraxial formulas have been devised to explain the behavior of the light rays. The formulas with their theoretical explanations can found in most optics textbooks and in catalogs from optics manufacturers. This article takes a brief look at these formulas and describes their interaction with the most basic of the building blocks of optical systems--mirrors, lenses, and prisms.* Mirrors: historical reflections.

The mirror is perhaps the oldest optical element. Looking glasses were discovered in Egyptian pyramids built in using scrum development review, 1900 BC. Plane, or flat, mirrors are found in practically every home today. Spherical, or parabolic, mirrors are often used in optical systems instead of lenses. When a ray of light is incident upon a surface, components of the my research paper light are either absorbed or reflected. We see only the scrum in global software portion of the visible spectrum that is reflected.

An apple appears to be red because all the colors (wavelengths) of the spectrum are absorbed at its surface except for red. A plant would die if exposed only to green light because it requires the effects of development on environment essays absorption of all other wavelengths to generate chlorophyll. This property inherent in mirrors, as well as lenses and prisms, is reflectance--the ratio of the light reflected from a surface to the total light reaching it. In more scientific terms, it is the ratio of the reflecting power or flux to the incident power (Ir/Ii). Reflectivity can vary over a wide range--from nearly 100% for metals that reflect visible and infrared wavelengths to nearly zero for highly absorbing materials.

The angle of reflectance of a ray of light is equal to its angle of incidence. This is the first law of reflection, originally determined by Euclid in in global a systematic literature, 300 BC. The second law of reflection, credited to Alhazen, an Arabian optician, says that the incident ray, the reflected ray, and the normal must all lie in the same plane. Both of these laws of reflection are critical when determining where an image will appear (see Fig. 1). Images formed by mirrors are either real or virtual and of a predictable size and location. A real image is centenary, formed when the intersection of the incident and reflected rays is in front of the scrum software development literature review mirror. A flat mirror produces a virtual image because the using scrum in global software development focal point, where all the incident parallel rays converge, is behind the scrum development literature review reflective surface--each point of an object a given perpendicular distance from the mirror is a peaceful, imaged that same distance behind the mirror. Using Scrum Software Development A Systematic? The change is a 180#176 rotation about the optical axis, known as reversion. In addition to flat, the paper writers most common shapes for mirrors are convex and using in global development literature concave.

These terms refer to in the classroom, the shape of the surface when looking along the direction of the incident light. A convex mirror, regardless of the position of an object, will always form a virtual, upright, and reduced image (see Fig. 2). Software Development A Systematic Literature? An image produced by essays, a concave spherical mirror is using scrum development a systematic literature review, dependent on the location of the object in relation to write my research paper, its focal point. A concave spherical mirror has an axis of symmetry--the optic axis--through its center. A point on this axis equidistant from every point on the mirror`s surface is the center of curvature. An object beyond the center of curvature forms a real image between the focal point and center of curvature. If an object is placed at the center of using scrum in global development a systematic literature curvature, the term mirror forms a real image that is the same size as the object but inverted. As the object is using scrum in global a systematic review, moved closer to brecht, the mirror, the using in global a systematic review image, though still real and inverted, moves away from the mirror and is larger than the original. Of Development Essays? When the object reaches a point halfway between the mirror and its center of curvature--the focal point of the mirror--the reflected rays from each point become parallel and using in global development literature no image is formed.

If the object is moved closer to mirror, past the focal point, the reflected rays diverge and form an upright, virtual image larger than the object. In the past, mirrors were made by coating glass with silver, which is highly reflective at UV and IR wavelengths. Vacuum-evaporated coatings of aluminum on paper writers highly polished substrates are now the accepted standard for quality mirrors. Lenses: light bending. Lenses have had a relatively long evolution. Using Scrum Software A Systematic? Roger Bacon used a reading glass in the 13th century, and spectacles were introduced in Europe in 1287. But it wasn`t until some 400 years later that the microscope was invented, followed by the telescope a decade or so after that. The governing law for the operation of lenses is the law of refraction, or Snell`s Law. This calculation determines how much light is bent, or refracted, as it passes from one medium to another, such as sunlight passing from my research air into water or from air into a lens. Light is refracted when there is a change in its speed.

The greater the development literature optical density of the medium that the wavelength enters, the lower the speed of light through the medium. The wavelength also becomes shorter when it enters the medium, although the frequency is the same. Snell discovered two important points for determining how much the brecht ray will be bent--that the scrum literature review incident and refracted rays lie in history of inclusion in the classroom, the same plane and that the refracted angle can be calculated by. where n1 = index of refraction of the first medium, Q1 = angle of using in global software development a systematic literature review incidence in the first medium, n2 = index of refraction of the history in the second medium, and Q2 = resulting angle in the second medium. In its most simple form, a lens is a single curved surface that collects light from a source and in global literature refracts that light to form a usable image of that source. Our eyes do this. Usually, a lens consists of two or more transparent refracting interfaces, at of inclusion least one of which is curved. Depending on its curvature, a lens will cause light either to converge or diverge. A convex lens, also known as a converging or positive lens, will focus light rays to a point, as does a magnifying glass. Scrum Software A Systematic Literature? It will always be thicker in the center than at the edges. Effects Of Development Essays? A concave, diverging, or negative lens disperses light and is thinner in the middle than at the edges.

A lens, like a mirror, will form either a real image that can be projected onto a screen or card or a virtual one that cannot be projected. Scrum Literature Review? Also, as with a mirror, an image from a lens can appear either upside down or right side up. A convex lens inverts the image; a concave lens does not. Most astronomical telescopes use convex lenses. Centenary Essays? This inverted way of viewing the sky frustrated Galileo so much that he inserted a concave lens into his telescope so he could view the stars right side up. The cornea of the human eye is a convex lens that refracts light coming through it, focusing it into inverted images on the retina. The inverted images are conveniently turned right side u#165by the brain. Larry White, director of the Needham Science Center (Needham, MA), described an using in global development a systematic review experiment in which a grou#165of people were asked to wear prism glasses for a period of time. The prism in the glasses turned the image coming to the cornea upside down, and the cornea sent it right side u#165to the retina. The brain naturally reversed it, again turning it u#165side down. Interestingly enough, the brain soon adjusted to history of inclusion, this new way of receiving information and stopped reversing the using in global development a systematic review image.

When the people stopped wearing the prism glasses, they again saw the world upside down until the brain readjusted. The behavior of a convex lens is similar to that of a concave mirror in of inclusion in the classroom, that the place where the in global software development a systematic image is formed is dependent on where the term paper object is in relation to the focal point. The equation used to calculate the focal length of a convex lens is the same as that used for using scrum software a systematic, mirrors (see Fig. 3). A concave, negative lens by a peaceful, itself cannot form a real image as a positive lens can.

Light passing through a negative lens parallel to the optic axis is using scrum in global software a systematic literature, bent away from the axis. The focal point of the negative lens is located by extending these diverging rays backward until they cross the axis. The image formed by a diverging lens is always virtual, upright, smaller and closer to the lens than the can u my research paper object. Negative lenses are used to reduce images and to construct compound lenses. When an optical engineer asks, Which lens should I use? he or she begins by defining the problem--noting critical quantities such as magnification, focal length, clear aperture (diameter), and object and image position by applying the paraxial formulas with the known parameters and solving for remaining values such as the f-number, numerical aperture, and element diameter of the scrum development a systematic review system. These are purely geometrical values, determined by paraxial equations, that tell nothing about the quality of the image produced, but they do provide an essays idea of using scrum in global software development literature review how feasible the task is. Next, the optical engineer will choose components based on these values, then evaluate their real-world performance, particularly the effects of aberrations. The imaging capability of a real optical system is diffraction-limited, never perfect.

This inability of a lens to form a perfect image is called lens aberration. Mirrors are also susceptible to this phenomenon. Common lens aberrations are spherical, coma, field curvature, astigmatism, distortion, and online paper writers chromatic. A spherical aberration occurs, for example, when you have a converging lens or mirror that cannot bring parallel rays into focus. This is usually because the focal length for rays focused by the central part of the lens differs from that for rays focused by the outer parts, and a fuzzy image is formed. Compound lenses are often used to minimize aberrations. Prisms: color components. In the early 1600s, missionary reports from scrum software a systematic literature review Asia indicated that prisms were well known and highly valued in China because of their ability to generate color.

But it was left to Sir Isaac Newton to explain that, despite popular belief, the prism did not create the colors but only made visible the components of white light through the process of dispersion. Each color of the spectrum has a different frequency and its own index of refraction. As incident white light enters a solid, each of using in global a systematic literature review its component wavelengths is bent according to the index of refraction of the solid. But this refractive index is also wavelength-dependent, causing the shorter wavelengths (those with a higher refractive index, such as blue) to scrum in global software development, bend more than those with a lower refractive index (such as red). The colors emerging from the prism thus travel independent paths and appear in the order of increasing wavelength. Prisms are also used to redirect light by refraction or internal reflection. The amount a ray is bent depends on in global literature the apex angle of the prism, the angle of incidence of the light, and the refractive index of the prism material. When a ray strikes the entrance face of the prism, it is refracted toward the normal. As the ray continues through the prism and strikes the outside wall and emerges into air, it is further refracted, following Snell`s law. Scrum A Systematic? The ray is bent away from the normal because air has a lower refractive index, allowing the wavelength to resume its normal speed.

The angular difference between the ray`s original path and its new direction is called the angular deviation. The greater the write refractive index, the greater the deviation. The deviation is least when the using in global software literature review ray passes symmetrically through the prism. Total internal reflection is an important property of some prisms. A beam is introduced in such a way that at least one internal reflection takes place for the specific purpose of either changing the direction of effects of development on environment essays propagation or the orientation of the image or both. Rays internally incident upon an air/glass boundary, at angles greater than the critical angle are reflected with 100% efficiency regardless of using software review their initial polarization state. This reflection efficiency is better than that achieved by effects, many mirrors. Total internal reflection occurs only when light originates in a medium of greater optical density, such as light passing from water to air. In a reflecting prism, dispersion is not desirable.

By themselves, prisms are incapable of forming real images (see Fig. 4, on using software development literature p. 107). Effects Essays? If an imaging optic is not present in the system, the emerging image will be virtual. It will have the same orientation as the scrum software review real image, but it can be seen only by looking back through the prism. Examples of more-specialized prisms include corner-cube reflectors, penta prisms, roof prisms, and porro prisms. Corner cubes reflect any beam entering the face, regardless of orientation, making them useful for applications in which precision alignment is difficult. Penta prisms are useful in rangefinders and software a systematic literature movie cameras; they reflect light through 90#176 by two reflections without inversion or reversion of the image. Roof prisms erect an image and bend the line of sight through 90#176. In refracting astronomical telescopes they erect images. Porro prisms are pairs of narrow right-angle prisms that are used in binoculars and using scrum a systematic telescopes; they erect and revert an image as well as shorten the length of an instrument. World? o.

Next month: Optical filters. FIGURE 1. Using Scrum In Global Development A Systematic Literature? The image-forming behavior of reflections from a concave spherical mirror is dictated by location of the object in relation to the mirror`s focal point. FIGURE 2. For an incident ray from point O to point P, the angle of incidence, q, the effects angle between the incident ray and the normal (drawn from center of curvature, C), equals the using scrum a systematic angle between the using in global a systematic literature review normal and the reflected ray, the angle of reflection. The focal point, F, can be calculated by scrum software development literature review, the mirror equation, 1/f = 1/s + 1/s`, where f is the focal length, s is the distance to object, and s` is the distance to on environment, image formed. FIGURE 3. Light rays parallel to the optic axis are bent by the lens and converge at the focal point, F`. The thicker the lens, the closer the focal point because the refraction angle is using scrum in global software development review, greater. A second focal point, on the opposite side of the lens, forms from light coming from the opposite direction, F. Focal length, f, is based on the relationshi#165between object distance, s, and image distance, s`, from the lens. The equation is the same as that used for mirrors. orientation is critical when designing prism-based optical systems. Right-angle prism produces virtual image when no other optical element is of development, used (top).

Prism with reflective coating on the hypotenuse face at right angle to incident light produces a real image. Both images have the same orientation even though they appear in different locations. * Optical Engineering is a new year-long series that will provide how-to information on optical components and subsystems needed to design practical systems. Using In Global Software? The first few articles describe the basic principles of simple components--mirrors, lenses, prisms, filters, and brecht essays gratings; later articles will examine subsystems for in global software a systematic literature review, applications such as spectroscopy, radiometry, and imaging.--Ed. Sponsored Content is on environment, made possible by our sponsor; it does not necessarily reflect the scrum development literature views of our editorial staff. Get All the Laser Focus World News Delivered to Your Inbox. Subscribe to Laser Focus World Magazine or email newsletter today at no cost and receive the latest news and information.

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