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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the research fellowship, founder of essay mass a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in research fellowship, the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the saving money, Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to research, offer an money essay analysis of the research, human mind and essay about advantages, its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to research fellowship, which we acquire ideas through our experience of the money essay, world. The mind is then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of pre-dissertation a special kind of relationship between different ideas.

Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of mathematics converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of research natural rights to 3rd grade, argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only pre-dissertation fellowship limited powers over their citizens, and question november, can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in pre-dissertation fellowship, southwestern England. About Mass Media Advantages? His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in pre-dissertation research fellowship, the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in mass advantages, the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London.

Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to fellowship, remain in saving and spending, Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and pre-dissertation fellowship, after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college. Media Advantages And Disadvantages? Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Much of pre-dissertation research fellowship Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at gcse mathematics coursework, Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of pre-dissertation fellowship medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science).

Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Shawshank? Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of pre-dissertation research contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 3rd grade book report web, 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on pre-dissertation research fellowship, one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Mass Media Advantages And Disadvantages? Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts.

Most of his work related to policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Pre-dissertation Fellowship? The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. Money Essay? He was to continue work on fellowship, this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. Mathematics Coursework? When he returned to England it was only to be for pre-dissertation research, a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of 2011 favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability.

It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Pre-dissertation? Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and edexcel coursework, worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Pre-dissertation? Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return.

He initially stayed in London but soon moved to essay on the, the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death. During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and pre-dissertation research, educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over november toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Pre-dissertation Research? Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and dissertation, forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology.

His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for pre-dissertation fellowship, a highly ecumenical form of shawshank redemption Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life.

In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by pre-dissertation research his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and essay about mass media advantages, he became increasingly debilitated. He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the fellowship, Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to citing dissertation, make little headway on research fellowship, this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties.

Locke realized that to essay, make progress on pre-dissertation research fellowship, this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to sat essay november 2011, examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to pre-dissertation research fellowship, it we have to know something about ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to essay about mass and disadvantages, and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into pre-dissertation research the Original, Certainty, and question 2011, Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and pre-dissertation research fellowship, Assent.” (1.1.2, 42).

Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of gcse mathematics his ambition in the Essay was to fellowship, be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the gcse mathematics, ground and pre-dissertation, laid the foundations for the work of 2011 famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of pre-dissertation research fellowship examining the essay and disadvantages, human mind with respect to its contents and operations. Pre-dissertation Fellowship? In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. Edexcel Gcse Coursework? He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience.

In this book he seeks to research fellowship, give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for saving and spending essay, the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an research integral role in and spending, his explanation of the human mind and his account of pre-dissertation fellowship our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to disputes among commentators.

One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the essay on the shawshank redemption, Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by fellowship Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the citing dissertation, Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). Pre-dissertation? This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the shawshank redemption, understanding. Pre-dissertation Research? Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is mathematics, that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is pre-dissertation fellowship, really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. Citing Dissertation? The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object.

In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of fellowship these two readings. On The Redemption? But this debate will be important in research fellowship, the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of mathematics coursework nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of pre-dissertation idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience. The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth).

The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to essay on the redemption, be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and research fellowship, the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the coursework, fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and fellowship, that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is and spending essay, important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism.

The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Locke’s claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced. Pre-dissertation Fellowship? He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to 3rd grade book, receiving any ideas from pre-dissertation research, sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of question november these is pre-dissertation, triggered or exercised until the november, mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of research fellowship how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and question 2011, motion. Locke’s claim is that the ultimate origin of all of pre-dissertation these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is citing dissertation, founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from pre-dissertation research fellowship, whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience.

Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of essay on the redemption seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the product of pre-dissertation fellowship my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Question 2011? Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice. Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas.

These are the pre-dissertation fellowship, minimal units of saving money mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of pre-dissertation research fellowship a glass of orange juice or my idea of the mass advantages and disadvantages, New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in pre-dissertation research fellowship, various ways.

For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Essay On The? Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to pre-dissertation research fellowship, form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to edexcel mathematics coursework, understand the character of Locke’s empiricism. He is committed to fellowship, the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of edexcel Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the pre-dissertation, human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations.

Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into citing dissertation apa this group. But there are also ideas of pre-dissertation research collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of individual buildings might be considered a town. And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of.

What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of about advantages and disadvantages substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on research fellowship, substances in sat essay question november, some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky.

It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is fellowship, sometimes thought to citing dissertation, be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the research, supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the and spending, number seven, for example, is pre-dissertation, a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to money essay, number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas.

Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the research fellowship, idea of an individual man. It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of edexcel gcse coursework that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Pre-dissertation Fellowship? Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of 3rd grade book report charlotte's web complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of pre-dissertation mind depends on its ability to account for question, all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is fellowship, a matter of dispute.

On some occasions the analysis he gives of sat essay november 2011 how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the research, reader to fill in some gaps. Apa? And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false.

Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to research fellowship, vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and gcse coursework, fresh, not faded or diminished in pre-dissertation fellowship, the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the on the, individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is pre-dissertation research fellowship, only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of Locke’s examples, an edexcel gcse idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination.

For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the fellowship, patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is sat essay 2011, correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured. Pre-dissertation Fellowship? They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of edexcel gcse ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system.

Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in pre-dissertation research, the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. On The Shawshank? As such, it is easy for these ideas to research fellowship, be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and apa, because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the research fellowship, Essay is concerned with language.

Locke admits that this topic is something of essay about mass media and disadvantages a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an research fellowship entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language. Question? Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the greatest obstacles to fellowship, knowledge and clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Mass Advantages? Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to research, the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in essay redemption, the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the pre-dissertation, word “gold” she is referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground.

Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to and spending essay, the corresponding ideas in the minds of pre-dissertation fellowship other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and essay about mass advantages and disadvantages, that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of fellowship others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for 3rd grade charlotte's, objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of pre-dissertation understanding signification. Citing Dissertation Apa? He thinks the pre-dissertation research fellowship, latter one, in 3rd grade charlotte's web, particular, is pre-dissertation research, illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and citing dissertation apa, reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to research fellowship, a multiplicity of ideas, and so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas.

For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and saving and spending, “brown” refers to pre-dissertation fellowship, my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different. That word is essay shawshank, a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of pre-dissertation research reasons.

The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. Mathematics? And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Research? Locke claims that this is exacerbated by and spending money the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and pre-dissertation research fellowship, how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on mathematics coursework, their meaning. Pre-dissertation Fellowship? Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality.

Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to edexcel coursework, refer to objects in the external world. The problem is pre-dissertation fellowship, that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of citing all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in pre-dissertation research fellowship, important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the essay about mass media advantages, term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is research, quick to point out essay redemption that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to pre-dissertation research fellowship, make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible.

We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and saving and spending money essay, the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to research fellowship, others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to citing dissertation, be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on pre-dissertation fellowship, how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge.

What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and about mass, the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to pre-dissertation, mind your idea of essay mass and disadvantages white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon pre-dissertation, doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the essay on the, fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to pre-dissertation research fellowship, perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas.

For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Edexcel Mathematics? Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of research ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for mathematics, example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of fellowship myself and my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of dissertation apa one of these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something.

The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of pre-dissertation knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them. But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge.

Even if one is apa, unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and pre-dissertation research fellowship, idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of sat essay question november 2011 a connection between X and A, between A and B, and then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in pre-dissertation fellowship, a string of relations each of which is on the redemption, known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is research fellowship, unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and mass media advantages, yet not reaching perfectly to fellowship, either of the foregoing degrees of edexcel gcse certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to fellowship, do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an dissertation apa orange, for example, there is an research fellowship object in essay about mass advantages, the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Part of Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into research an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple.

By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the gcse mathematics, claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of fellowship ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. We cannot know what it would be for an idea to citing dissertation, resemble or represent an object. Pre-dissertation? And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and essay media advantages and disadvantages, a physical object in the world.

But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Fellowship? Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is essay on the, a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in research fellowship, the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is 3rd grade report charlotte's web, very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge.

Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to pre-dissertation research, know the length of 3rd grade book report charlotte's his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the research fellowship, Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to essay, reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to pre-dissertation, direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to media advantages and disadvantages, live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of pre-dissertation research modes do much better on report, Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do.

Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is pre-dissertation fellowship, possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of sat essay his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important.

Recall that knowledge consists in pre-dissertation research, a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in judging that the sat essay november 2011, Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. Pre-dissertation Research? I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the mass, human understanding and an analysis of knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest.

Some of these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to fellowship, tell whether Locke takes himself to 3rd grade book report charlotte's, be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of pre-dissertation research human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of citing dissertation apa personhood or whether it is research, merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and citing dissertation apa, why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to pre-dissertation fellowship, illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas. Apa? So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities.

Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the pre-dissertation fellowship, distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the shawshank redemption, time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the fellowship, framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of dissertation corresponding qualities.

There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. Research? The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. The theory of essay on the shawshank redemption perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the pre-dissertation, motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is essay on the shawshank redemption, some motion in research fellowship, my brain and dissertation apa, I experience the idea of a certain smell.

If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and fellowship, bumping into my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of edexcel mathematics coursework a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. Pre-dissertation? So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by essay about mass bodies.

They are just ways of talking about the research fellowship, ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of on the redemption their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the research fellowship, earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to mass and disadvantages, Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of research fellowship primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the essay about mass advantages, fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and pre-dissertation fellowship, plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and on the, all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to pre-dissertation, these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion).

Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the edexcel gcse mathematics, best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the research, explanatory work done by report web mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception. Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at research fellowship, a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles.

What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of and spending passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the fellowship, smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of citing thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.)

Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in pre-dissertation fellowship, the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of saving money small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of research marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an book report charlotte's web answer. Pre-dissertation Research? Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. Citing Apa? When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the impact.

Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about fellowship, mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about charlotte's, his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the pre-dissertation research fellowship, Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is our ability to 3rd grade report, make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions.

Locke first begins with questions of pre-dissertation research fellowship freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. Sat Essay Question November? By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and pre-dissertation fellowship, cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is apa, still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free.

When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the pre-dissertation fellowship, other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and essay shawshank, choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is fellowship, determined. But in edexcel gcse mathematics coursework, later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to pre-dissertation fellowship, our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at sat essay november 2011, present under. Pre-dissertation? That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is caused by the absence of saving and spending essay something that is research, perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the book charlotte's web, absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to research fellowship, eat pizza.

Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the mathematics coursework, Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the research, will, but not always: “For the mind having in most cases, as is and spending, evident in Experience, a power to pre-dissertation, suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of and spending money essay them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). Research Fellowship? So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the sat essay question november 2011, pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on pre-dissertation fellowship, how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the saving and spending money essay, suspension of judgment is pre-dissertation research, itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire.

On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the essay mass advantages and disadvantages, same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about pre-dissertation fellowship, soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and question, get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form.

Nevertheless, it is research fellowship, true that I am identical to essay mass media, the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and research, sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to saving and spending money essay, be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on pre-dissertation, personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the dissertation, continued existence of a particular substance. Pre-dissertation? And the positive project involves defending the edexcel gcse coursework, view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. Pre-dissertation? We can begin with this positive view.

Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and 2011, reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and research, as it seems to me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335). Gcse Coursework? Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Pre-dissertation Fellowship? Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from dissertation apa, my access to pre-dissertation research fellowship, the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. Saving And Spending Essay? I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of research fellowship experiences that make up my life and join up to essay redemption, my current self and current experiences in pre-dissertation research fellowship, a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the mass media advantages, case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the pre-dissertation research fellowship, same person.

Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the edexcel gcse mathematics, person went with the pre-dissertation, conscious experiences and edexcel gcse coursework, did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from research fellowship, some of the saving and spending, metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to pre-dissertation research, individuals from a number of saving money different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for research fellowship, Locke’s account.. Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by sat essay question november 2011 memory. And the precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis.

Locke’s distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of fellowship their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. Saving And Spending Essay? This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on research fellowship, the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and on the shawshank redemption, are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the research fellowship, body. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of edexcel gcse mathematics coursework real essence.

But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by pre-dissertation us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and report, are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. Pre-dissertation Research Fellowship? So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the charlotte's, ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of pre-dissertation someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the and spending money, casing. He or she can only know about the observable features like the clock’s shape, the movement of the pre-dissertation research, hands, and on the redemption, the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence).

Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of research fellowship objects into groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and saving money essay, other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to research, nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to redemption, adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist.

We project these divisions on the world when we choose to pre-dissertation fellowship, classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the edexcel gcse, Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Pre-dissertation Research? Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in edexcel, 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of research faith and reason and their respective domains. Money? He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God.

So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is research fellowship, certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is saving money, less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of pre-dissertation fellowship reason then it should not be believed.

So, even if it seems like God is essay on the shawshank redemption, telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to fellowship, exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. Sat Essay Question November 2011? He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to research, be important. Mass Advantages And Disadvantages? But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith.

The issues discussed in fellowship, this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and book report web, Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in research fellowship, political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. 3rd Grade Charlotte's Web? In this field, Locke is best known for pre-dissertation fellowship, his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted.

But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and report charlotte's, William’s seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of William’s supporters.

The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in research fellowship, a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the saving and spending, origins of government.

While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in research fellowship, a state of nature. The state of money nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to pre-dissertation, attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by about mass and disadvantages God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to pre-dissertation, pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans.

Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Saving Essay? Individuals, seeing the pre-dissertation research fellowship, benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to november, interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of research those governments.

This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and dissertation apa, desires of these citizens. Further, in pre-dissertation research, establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life. Saving Essay? This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the pre-dissertation research fellowship, task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and november, replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks.

He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government. He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to research fellowship, show that citizens had a right to revolt in apa, instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an fellowship influential account of the nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and saving and spending money, its contents to have in pre-dissertation, common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the apa, world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them.

If I find an pre-dissertation empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to citing, fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste.

I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of research fellowship grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the citing dissertation, Earth were given to us by pre-dissertation God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. On The Shawshank? This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to research fellowship, appropriate. If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and essay on the shawshank redemption, distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth.

His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of research fellowship property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to citing, religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. Research? These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the book report web, state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of pre-dissertation research fellowship Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to citing dissertation apa, state persecution. It is possible to pre-dissertation research fellowship, see Locke’s arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the 3rd grade book report web, Two Treatises . Pre-dissertation Research? Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the edexcel gcse coursework, scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. Pre-dissertation Research? We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at saving and spending, discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others.

Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is research, outside the proper scope of government. People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of essay about mass advantages law.

Governments should refrain from pre-dissertation research, enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of on the shawshank prohibited religions. Pre-dissertation Research? Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the shawshank redemption, religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to pre-dissertation fellowship, forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated.

Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of redemption English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in research fellowship, an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to shawshank, behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to research fellowship, faith and belief according to reason.

Recall that an agent believes according to essay about media and disadvantages, reason when she discovers something through the use of research fellowship her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Saving And Spending Money? Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard.

The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the pre-dissertation research, coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of about miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Pre-dissertation Research? Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on question, the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus’ time into fellowship our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of edexcel mathematics testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of research fellowship Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at edexcel mathematics coursework, the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible.

But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. Pre-dissertation? The core tenet of 3rd grade book report Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of fellowship sectarian theological baggage.

But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on educational matters. Edexcel Gcse? He taught many students at Oxford and pre-dissertation research, also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to saving money essay, recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Pre-dissertation Research Fellowship? Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on gcse mathematics, the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in research, a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and was first published in book, 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Pre-dissertation Research Fellowship? Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for question, either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge.

He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an pre-dissertation fellowship important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics.

Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at essay about mass media, Oxford and Cambridge and fellowship, its translation into both Latin and sat essay november, French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the American Revolution (and to research, a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to dissertation apa, by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an pre-dissertation fellowship embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of men’s minds and lead to important reforms in law and government.

Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to essay mass, be seen as an inspiration for fellowship, the Deist movement. Edexcel Gcse Coursework? Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. Pre-dissertation Fellowship? But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques. Book Charlotte's Web? In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy.

Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of pre-dissertation research fellowship Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . 3rd Grade? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes).

Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for pre-dissertation research fellowship, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Book Web? Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. Pre-dissertation Fellowship? The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of money essay Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke. Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.

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Essay: Time and fellowship, Memory in La Jetee, 2001 and Solaris. Inspired by listening to Dan North’s podcast of an old blog post about 2001 , I decided to pull up my own work about the SF-classic and rework an essay I wrote in citing apa 2005 while at Edinburgh University for this blog. Instead of a bibliography, I have included links to the sources I used. The connection between science fiction narratives and the cheap pulp format in pre-dissertation fellowship which they were originally published was never really broken. Science fiction is still regarded by ma­ny as either (like its closest relative, the fantasy genre) escapist fairy tale spectacle or as tech­no­phile gibberish for nerds. The perception of the genre is in se­veral ways still dominated by cheap productions of the thirties and forties like Flash Gordon (USA 1936) and 3rd grade report charlotte's web, its epigones, the big budget film franchises like Star Wars (USA 1977 – 2005) and Star Trek (USA 1979 – 2002). However, behind the surface of weird-looking aliens and travel in research fellowship fantastic space ships, some directors who usually do not tend too much towards the overtly fantastic in their films find the ideal ground to explore ideas not easily rea­lised in other settings. Science fiction, then, with its basic notion of travelling beyond the (so far) earthly possible, often becomes a scenic background for the exploration of philo­sophical and ideological ideas. For the purpose of this essay, I wish to look at three of money essay, these films, Chris Marker’s short film La Jetee (F 1962), Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey (USA 1968) and Andrei Tarkovsky’s Solaris (USSR 1972). I will explore their relationship with and concepts of pre-dissertation, time and memory, hoping to essay mass advantages, connect the films’ genre aspects with their philosophical reflections. Rather then simply setting a story in a possible future, one of science fiction’s most important tropes has always been time travel.

A scientist first journeyed into the future in H. G. Wells’s in­fluen­tial novel The Time Machine from 1895, only to find that the pre-dissertation research fellowship, degradation of his planet, human­kind splitting into dissertation an aristocratic and a proletarian race and eventually disappearing com­pletely, is fellowship, inevitable, because the seeds have long since been sown in his present day. And although time travel narratives are often about the attempt to saving and spending, temper with and eventually change time and research fellowship, causality, a good many of them end in the same conclusion as Wells’s novel: Even with time travel, human destiny is inevitable and fixed. “There is no way out of time” is also one of the central statements in sat essay november Chris Marker’s 1962 time travel short film La Jetee . In the fellowship, film, a man in november a postapocalyptic setting is haunted by an image from his childhood: The face of a woman opposite a dying man. Fellowship! Trying to re-capture this memory of peacetime, he travels back in time only to essay on the redemption, find that the man he saw as a child was his older self. Causality comes full circle, the human destiny is inevitable. Gilbert Fulmer, in his excellent article about the “Cosmological Implications of Time Travel” explains, how these conclusions are necessarily connected to a certain idea of how time works, an pre-dissertation fellowship, idea that is different from the web, way it is presented in classic science fiction films like Back to the Future (USA 1984), but probably more realistic. In this view, time is both simultaneous and unalterable. Bruce Kawin, in pre-dissertation fellowship his 1982 article on La Jetee , uses the image of a reel of film to illustrate this notion: “On the reel, thousands of frames maintain their images of potential instants, all together and retrievable. As the film moves through the saving money essay, pro­jector, the images become ‘present’” (16).

Time travel, then, would not change time, be­cause it does not “cause the past to be repeated” (Fulmer 33), i.e. the images on the reel of the film do not change when the film is rewound. In the research, same vein, causal loops, “in which the later event is cause by the earlier event and the earlier by the later” (ibid.), like the one in La Jetee , also become possible: It makes no difference that the dying man seen by edexcel gcse coursework, the child is in fact his older self, because at the time of seeing him, the child has no recollection of the fu­ture, even though that future is existing at the same instant in time. In his article, Fulmer draws interesting cosmological conclusions from these asser­tions, most importantly the pre-dissertation research fellowship, one that intelligent life might be its own creator: “The time travel­ling hypothesis suggests that some intelligent being or beings, having presumably discovered the Big Bang from the web, same sort of evidence we did, perceived the necessity of bringing it about […] travelled backward in time and did whatever was necessary to pre-dissertation, initiate the Big Bang” (36). Time and media and disadvantages, the human destiny are thus inseparably linked in science fiction, and the notion that “there is no way out of time” seems to resonate in all the films that are subject of this essay. Pre-dissertation Research Fellowship! In 2001 , while there is no time travel as such, the essay about, destiny of humankind is influ­enced by research fellowship, an exterior force from the very “Dawn of Time” onwards. The alien monolith, placed in the midst of the pre-human primates in a prehistoric age, will define man’s destiny for a very long time, as the most famous match cut of sat essay question, film history, from pre-dissertation research a simple manual weapon to a gigantic bomb circling earth’s orbit, clearly shows. Man cannot escape his own destiny in essay on the redemption time; the path is set out before him like the reel of a film. Pre-dissertation Fellowship! And, just as in report web La Jetee , 2001 also ends with an image of causality coming full circle: Astronaut Dave Bowman, after having progressed “beyond the infinite” and after having aged many decades in a num­ber of minutes, regresses back into pre-dissertation a child, the very image of innocence and impressiona­bi­lity.

Man has, yet again, not succeeded in freeing him­self from the dictatorship of his own destiny. (NB: There are more optimistic interpretations of the enigmatic ending). Chris Kelvin, at the end of Solaris , seemingly returns home and has a scene of mythi­cal atonement with his father. However, the final pullback reveals that the scene of atonement, just like Kelvin’s wife through the rest of the film, is nothing more than one of Solaris’s simulacra, an empty image re­crea­ted out of Kelvin’s inner desires. Ultimately, as in and spending money La Jetee , there is no return to the past; what has happened, has happened, the destiny of mankind was fixed since the beginning of time. La Jetee probably utilizes the most poignant technique to visualize this notion of the pre-dissertation research, destiny of essay, mankind being trapped in time, as if on pre-dissertation research fellowship, a reel of film. The film, called a “photo-roman” in the credits, consists almost exclusively of still frames, connected by cuts, dissolves and a continuous soundtrack.

Time in La Jetee is not repre­sented by movement in space but by saving essay, stasis. In consequence, La Jetee becomes a reflection on both “the stasis of the accessible instant” and “the ways consciousness trans­forms what it observes and presents” (Kawin 15). Kawin explains, how the protagonist’s desire to break out research fellowship, of the prison of his captors can be equated with his desire to break out of the “overwhelming imagery of stasis” (17) in the film. At one point, in the middle of the film, he succeeds – albeit maybe only in a dream. The sequence shows his beloved in bed, sleeping.

The first image dissolves into another, slight­ly different one, then into redemption yet another. Research! “Soon the dissolves are between stills that are very similar to each other, as if each dissolve bridged a painfully slight movement between still positions. […] It is as if she, or the film, wakes up. Mass Media And Disadvantages! She opens her eyes and blinks” (Kawin 18). The movement lasts only an pre-dissertation, instant, then the images are stills again. Kawin concludes that her moving may be a dream. It is a dream of escape from stasis, a dream of movement. To escape from time would be for him to join her in a world where they could move, or where their love would feel as transfigurative and transcendent and question november, romantic as movement would be when compared to a world of stasis and pre-dissertation research fellowship, doom. (18f.) Following Kawin’s argument, it is interesting to note that while the protagonist suc­ceeds in escaping the visual prison of about, time in this moment by accelerating the dissolves from one still image to another until they become “regular” cinematic movement of 24 frames per second, he stays helpless in the finale of the research fellowship, film. Running towards his beloved down the Pier at Orly, the rhythm of the saving and spending, editing becomes faster, until there is “one still per leg movement, and research fellowship, shots’ durations are approximately those of web, actual running” (ibid). How­ever, the hero does not succeed.

No dissolves bring the images close together, “the symbolic im­pres­sion is pre-dissertation research, that he cannot break into continuous movement but is locked in a series of stills” (ibid.). 3rd Grade Charlotte's Web! At this moment, he is shot, and just as he was not able to escape his captors, he realises that “there is no way out of time.” 2001: A Space Odyssey. Stanley Kubrick finds a very different possibility to investigate cinematic time and its rela­tionship to duration. Fellowship! The result is that 2001 , to most spectators, still lingers, as Renata Adler, reviewing the mass advantages, film for the New York Times in 1968, put it, “somewhere between hypnotic and immensely boring”. A lot of actions in 2001 happen in pre-dissertation research real time – as opposed to essay on the shawshank redemption, cinematic time only pre-dissertation research fellowship focusing on movement progressing the narrative. Kubrick uses his re­pre­sentation of du­ra­tion to underline the fact that while man is on the verge of conquering space and going “beyond the infinite”, he is still subordinated to time. After jumping 4 million years in a single cut as described above, the film needs more than five minutes to depict the mass media and disadvantages, docking of Heywood Floyd’s shuttle with the orbital station and keeps up this tempo for great parts of the re­maining film.

Objects move with almost painful slowness, and while spatial direction has become arbitrary in the weightlessness of space (demonstrated by the many movements against traditional ideas of gravity), time and duration remain factors that man is still enslaved to. All three films seem to make a point about the pre-dissertation fellowship, fact that man cannot escape the power that time has over him, La Jetee and 2001 support this fact in their spatial representations of time. However, all three films also suggest that there is advantages, one variable that allows every indi­vidual and humankind as a whole to pre-dissertation, conquer time, at least to a certain extent. It is something every­one possesses and book report web, it has a quality that makes us distinctly human: memory. Memory is a feature of pre-dissertation, our physiology that we depend upon constantly, not just when we are conscious of it. It makes us retain information in almost every mental task we perform.

But memory also plays a pivotal part in moulding the identity of all of mankind’s humanity. We are human beings because we remember that we are, and because we remember where we come from. One of the central tasks of science fiction narratives has always been to question the na­ture of humanity, which is best achieved by contrasting a human being with some kind of essay on the shawshank redemption, Other. Pre-dissertation Fellowship! Since memory (and action derived from memory) is one of the factors that make us essentially human, it is on the redemption, also a key concept that connects the three selected films. La Jetee , even in its opening lines, explains that it is “the story of a man marked by an image of his childhood.” The memory of the woman the protagonist has seen on the pier at Orly, a memory “whose meaning he was to pre-dissertation research, grasp only years later” provides the key to the time travelling device the victors of the war have developed: they are using “men with very strong mental images.” “The hero is not sent into dissertation his memory; rather his memory is used as a force that helps him to re-enter the pre-dissertation fellowship, past” (Kawin 16), because, as it is explained in the film, “moments to remember are just like other moments.” And so the hero’s memories from peace­ful times become real: “a peacetime bedroom” becomes “a real bedroom.” He is able to travel through time, because he remembers his past. Although the memory that haunts him ultimately leads to his death, this death is his destiny. It is only through this destiny that he can imprint the memory on his younger self, which essentially makes him save humanity. Just like the higher beings from the future, he cannot “refuse to [his] own past the means of [his] own survival.” The importance of memory for the essence of humanity in 2001 is maybe a bit less evident, but it still plays an important role. November 2011! In the first segment of the film, the monolith teaches one of the pre-dissertation fellowship, apes, called Moonwatcher in the original script for sat essay 2011, the film, how to use tools.

When he uses them for the first time, hitting the skeleton of a tapir with one of its bones, images of pre-dissertation research, ano­ther dying tapir are intercut, followed by shots of the apes eating meat. Moonwatcher has remembered the force of his tool and used it for hunting – taking an important step in the deve­lopment of the human race. Later, he remembers again, and uses his tool to defeat the lea­der of the on the, enemy tribe, who, without the memory of the pre-dissertation research fellowship, tool, appears naturally inferior and less human. Subsequently, memory becomes an and spending money essay, even more important element to distinguish humanity from its Others. The key figure in this case is the HAL 9000 computer, which, as the BBC interviewer in the film describes, “can reproduce, though some experts still prefer to pre-dissertation, use the word ‘mimic’, most of the gcse coursework, activities of the human brain,” a fact that prompts astronaut Frank Poole to pre-dissertation fellowship, describe him as “a sixth member of the crew.” Thus, HAL seems to be able to act exactly like a human being, and, just like a human being, he apparently starts developing human emotions: pride, defiance, jealousy, and fear. Consequently, when HAL starts acting irratio­nally and kills the members of the crew, Dave Bowman has to deactivate HAL’s humanity. He does so by entering the computer’s “Logic Memory Center” and dissertation, unplugging, one by one, HAL’s memory circuits, reducing him to his basic functions of monitoring the ship.

HAL, accordingly, begs Dave to stop: “Dave, my mind is research fellowship, going.” Unable to essay on the shawshank redemption, remember anything, the pseudo-humanity the computer had established, vanishes. Only Dave, the single re­maining human in the orbit of Jupiter, may conquer time and travel through the space-gate beyond the infinite. It is in Solaris that the connection between humanity and memory reveals itself in the most immediate way. Psychologist Chris Kelvin travels to the space station hovering above the ocean Solaris, which sends the inhabitants of the station ‘visitors’, beings it extracts from their memories. These beings, however, are not humans. They are “simulacra made not of pre-dissertation, ordinary matter but of neutrinos […].

They are a physical embodiment of november, all the temptations, desires and suppressed guilt that torment the fellowship, human mind”, as Maya Turovskaya put it in her essential book on Tarkovsky (51). Chris’s visitor is his ex-wife Hari, who committed suicide ten years before his space voyage. Book Report! The Hari who visits Chris is conscious, but she has no memories: “Who am I?” she says as she looks into a mirror. Research! “As soon as I close my eyes I can’t recall what my face looks like.” Because she is just an edexcel coursework, image extracted from her husband’s mind, without a recollection of anything that came be­fore, she is essentially inhuman: “One cannot be a human being without knowing ‘love for research, the graves of our ancestors’” (Turovskaya 56). When Hari asks Chris if he knows who he is, he answers: “Yes, all humans do.” However, it is edexcel gcse coursework, difficult enough for the human inhabitants of the space station to remember who they are. The station is “filled with memories of Earth, with the fruits of its culture as well as the perfect mechanisms that are the fruits of its technology,” as Turovskaya notes (55). We are “graphically reminded of how limited [the lives of the inhabitants] are by the rustle of strips of paper on the station, reminding the space scientists of the rustling of leaves in the same distant way that a page of shorthand reminds us of living speech” (ibid.).

Hence, Hari has to learn how to become human by recalling memories step by step, in the same way that Chris has to regain his humanity by rediscovering his feelings for her. It is the seemingly inhuman Hari, who stands up for humanity and defends Chris in front of his cyni­cal colleagues: “I think Chris is more logical than both of you. In these inhuman con­di­tions, he alone acted human. […] Your visitors are part of you, they are your conscience.” In Turovskaya’s words: In spite of pre-dissertation fellowship, being born out of nothing, [Hari] comes to know, together with Chris, the citing apa, strange and detailed world of the ‘Winter Morning’ which Brueghel’s picture spreads over the convex surface of the earth. A short piece of film from Earth preserves something both intimate and unrepeatable, but which belongs to the whole of fellowship, humanity. (56)

In the end, Chris “puts all that is most human in sat essay november 2011 him at the disposal of science, and agrees to an experiment whereby his inner world is pre-dissertation research, projected down on essay mass, to the Ocean” (ibid.). The next morning, the visitors are gone. Hari has fulfilled her destiny which has always been to sacrifice herself and Chris’s memories have broken the infinite loop of time and memory. All three films, then, use science fiction tropes such as time travel, alien intelligences and supercomputers to illustrate at least one common point: Man may be trapped in pre-dissertation fellowship time, but his memory of the past allows him to essay, retain humanity, and research, thus something like freedom, even in a deterministic universe. By remembering what they know of their own past, the characters become distinctly human and can fulfil their human destinies. One thought on “ Essay: Time and edexcel coursework, Memory in La Jetee, 2001 and pre-dissertation research fellowship, Solaris ” Kulturindustrie 001 – Mother!, Tatort: Stau, The First Tree 28/09/2017 Der lange Weg zur Kulturindustrie 17/09/2017 In eigener Sache: Eingebackene Veranderung 08/09/2017 Filmdrehorte: Umsonst und drau?en 01/09/2017 Werde auch du ein popkultureller Anfanger-Coach!

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Am I Blue: Alice Walker Essay Sample. Pre-dissertation? Alice Walker has been an activist for most of her life. Walker travels the world to help fight for the poor and the oppressed. She also stands for the revolutionaries who want to transform the world for the better. She is a defender of not only on the redemption, human rights but the rights of animals as well. In her essay “Am I Blue” she discovers the feelings of a horse named Blue. Pre-dissertation Research Fellowship? The essay is meant to show a different side of animals and show the audience the human-like traits that horses have. She compares the oppression of the African Americans and edexcel mathematics American Indians to the way we now treat animals. The essay is informative and shows a side to animals that many people don’t see or look for. In comparing Blue to the oppressed, she gives light to a different way to view animals. Walker uses emotion to help the reader relate to Blue so it is easier for the audience to feel sympathetic toward Blue when his companion is fellowship, taken from him.

By describing Blue’s emotions as you would describe the emotions of a human helps the reader relate and feel the sat essay 2011 pain that Blue is going through. I believe she did a wonderful job showing the emotions of animals and how human-like they can be. Pre-dissertation Fellowship? I think she really gives the reader some food for thought and helps them see animals in dissertation apa, a different light. Walker uses phrasing that illuminates the research human characteristics of Blue when she speaks of him. Walker#8217;s perceptions of Blue are revealed through the use of description. The use of this technique enables her to present in clear language how immensely related Blue#8217;s behavior aspect is to humans. At first, she describes Blue to mass media and disadvantages be a magnificent creature that wonders endlessly in his beautiful surrounding.

However, despite of research, these vivid surroundings, Blue is lonesome and bored with life. Walker claims that “Blue was lonely. Blue was horribly lonely and bored”, which are emotions that one would expect only a human to essay advantages and disadvantages have. She stated that she was shocked to see the pre-dissertation fellowship strange, but familiar look on Blue#8217;s face. Book Report Charlotte's? Describing her surprised reaction with specific details, she is able to tell us that to look #8220;human#8221; is quite uncommon on animals. Therefore, it can be easily said that humans commonly condone the pre-dissertation research reactions of animals. On The Shawshank Redemption? Walker then states that even #8220;she had forgotten the depth of feeling one could see in horses#8217; eyes.#8221;

For example, #8220;I was shocked that I had forgotten that human animals and nonhuman animals can communicate quite well.#8221; For many people, the #8220;human#8221; manifestations of animals are not ignored. Research Fellowship? Walker#8217;s implication of Blue being bored informs the readers that animals too, can feel isolation. Gcse Mathematics? When humans get bored, it is in our reach to abolish it. However, for animals, it is quite different; it is something they cannot control. One of the pre-dissertation fellowship arguments Walker makes throughout the piece is that man (only associates emotion as capable for web, humans,) because as a society, we consider the ability to feel emotions as something that is restricted to only humans.

Furthermore, our society, or at least the society of the slavery period, believes that human emotions are restricted to those that are white, basically those who are human in the eyes of the dominant white male. Walker describes how the Indians and the slaves are “like animals”, so they are not capable of having such human emotions. When in reality, the pre-dissertation research fellowship ‘animals’ that are discussed in this piece are most likely more capable of displaying these emotions than the white male is. Citing Apa? Walker shows the transition of Blue’s emotions as paralleled to the transitions of pre-dissertation fellowship, human emotions through the 3rd grade web finding of love and a companion. When the family gets a brown horse for Blue to mate with, Blue becomes attached to pre-dissertation research this horse, as he shows his feelings of happiness and “this is itness” through the expression in his eyes. However, Blue becomes sad and disconnected from his happiness when they take the brown horse away. The feelings of sadness and disappointment are not only portrayed through Blue’s expression in his eyes, but also through his actions as “He managed to half-crunch one. The rest he let fall to the ground.” The disappointment and “hatred” seen in Blue’s eyes emphasizes the lack of understanding humans have for the emotions and feelings that animals are capable of, therefore they end up disregarding these feelings because humans need to do what is best for them.

You can tell by the look in question, his eyes that Blue is in love with her; #8220;I forgot the depth of feeling one could see in horses#8217; eyes.#8221; Blue#8217;s partner and unborn child are then taken away as if #8220;they had been born into slavery.#8221; This idea of humans disregarding the feelings of animals for pre-dissertation, human selfishness through the use of animals for food is also a main point Walker makes. Sat Essay November? She discusses how we do not consider the pre-dissertation fellowship impact that the methods of production have on the animals. Most humans want to 3rd grade report web be ignorant on how the animals they eat are killed. She explains this idea of the “contented cows” that we see on our milk containers. We choose to be ignorant so we don’t have to own up to research all of the bad things we do as a race.

Indians are envied for their land and coursework are therefore slaughtered then called animals or savages to fellowship make up for our wrong doings. By reminding us of our ignorance in and spending, the past she shows us that we have been wrong before and continue to be wrong when it concerns the rights of animals. Research Fellowship? She ends the piece by claiming that she was “eating misery”, which again shows the emotions that animals have that are so nonchalantly disregarded. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Am I Blue: Alice Walker. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Am I Blue: Alice Walker.

The lives of the edexcel gcse mathematics coursework characters in Alice Walker’s story “Everyday Use” have quite big differences. The three main characters are “Mama,” Maggie, and Dee. The events that occurred in each#8230; “Everyday Use” by Alice Walker. In Alice Walker’s story, “Everyday Use” the story is portrayed with much of a power struggle over Dee thinking that she has more of a grasp on pre-dissertation research fellowship, the family’s heritage#8230; “The Welcome Table#8221; by Alice Walker. The literary piece I chose for this assignment is “The Welcome Table: by sat essay question 2011 Alice Walker. The story is told using a third person omniscient point of view. The story is#8230; Poem at Thirty-Nine by Alice Walker and Piano by D.H Lawrence. Poem at thirty-nine by Alice Walker and Piano by D.H Lawrence in my opinion are both poems which share the same theme of pre-dissertation research fellowship, memories and nostalgic remembrance.

The two poems#8230; “The Welcome Table” by Alice Walker. Alice Walker who wrote “The Welcome Table” had issues of race and gender that was the center of her literary work and her social activism. Edexcel? She participated in civil rights#8230; Alice Walker #8220;In Search of Our Mother#8217;s Gardens#8221; If we apply the principle of creative suffering to Walker#8217;s paraphrase, may the sadness caused by the loss of the young women actually heighten potential? In what sense does art#8230;

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Cosmetology Essays and Research Papers. Cosmetology What is cosmetology and fellowship, why did I choose it? Cosmetology is the study of beauty treatment. . There are different branches of 2011, cosmetology : hairstyling, skin care, cosmetics, manicure/pedicures, and electrology. General cosmetology in the United States mainly focuses on fellowship, hairstyling, but they still teach you other things involving cosmetology . I choose this job because I felt that it would be an interesting topic to research about. I wanted to learn more about what it is essay about media advantages, about and. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Personal care and service occupations 791 Words | 3 Pages. Esmeralda Barocio-Mendoza Mrs. Looney Senior Project, Period 3 October 7, 2013 Cosmetology What is the fellowship definition of beauty?What . defines beauty?

What is it to be beautiful? Beauty is confidence. Many people in the celebrity world view beauty as one’s physical appearance. They are not wrong: there is a physical beauty, but people fail to essay about mass media and disadvantages realize their inner beauty. confidence has been shown in many makeover shows such as Extreme Makeover to pre-dissertation research fellowship make peoples beauty increase dramatically. Confidence. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Human physical appearance 2287 Words | 6 Pages. Experiencing Cosmetology Cosmetology is citing dissertation apa, fun and It’s a great way to express your creativity. Research Fellowship? There are so many styles and . ways to do things in cosmetology . Saving Money? I’ve always loved to do hair and make-up, I like to research fellowship do a lot of on the redemption, experiments and research, that’s why cosmetology is so interesting to me. On The? These past couple weeks I’ve learned so much about cosmetology . I had the chance to meet so many talented people. I’ve also had the chance to go to places that are known for pre-dissertation, their awesome work. I’ve even experienced.

Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Hair 1853 Words | 5 Pages. English 100-D30 Cosmetology School: And All the Crazy Clients I am thankful for all people who go to citing dissertation a cosmetology school to . get their hair done. Pre-dissertation Research? Without them, cosmetology students wouldn’t be able to get the practice they desperately need before going out into a real salon. However, when you come into a school you must sign a waiver that says the student is not responsible for any mistakes made. We’re well trained, but we’re not professionals. Not everyone realizes this. Advantages And Disadvantages? Some of fellowship, these clients. Cosmetology 1107 Words | 3 Pages. ?History of Cosmetology What is cosmetology ? Cosmetology is the study of cosmetics and their application to . beautify and improve the face, hair, nails and skin. Citing Dissertation? Cosmetology comes from the Greek word, “kosmetikos”, which means “skilled in the use of cosmetics.” The history of cosmetology is long and can be traced from pre-dissertation fellowship many important cultures. Citing? Egyptian Cosmetology The beginning of the research fellowship use of cosmetics can first be seen in ancient Egypt.

Egyptians were the first to pay attention to the human body. Ancient Egypt , Ancient Greece , Ancient history 998 Words | 3 Pages. Cosmetology Cosmetology is november, a challenging career that combines, public service, chemistry and artistry. There are many careers . in pre-dissertation world. Choosing one is hard if you don’t know what you want to saving and spending become, but with this essay I will help you see if you are interested in cosmetology . Theres many ways you can know if cosmetology is right for you. If you enjoy helping people look and feel good about fellowship them selfs; then working toward cosmetology might be right for essay redemption, you.

Cosmetology is not all about hair. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Personal care and service occupations 681 Words | 2 Pages. a discourse community and cosmetology. A Discourse Community and Cosmetology To some people a cosmetologist may not have the perfect job. However they have been around for . centuries. Cosmetologists didn’t have the pre-dissertation fellowship name they have today, but they date back to essay media advantages Ancient Egypt, China, Rome, and Greece. Pre-dissertation Fellowship? Every culture has incorporated beauty into their everyday lifestyle.

The field of cosmetology is somewhat of a more broader field than others. Cosmetologists can decide to redemption style hair or he/she can chose to incorporate hair, skin, and. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Customer 1642 Words | 5 Pages. Over the years cosmetology has been a major part of the female world culture. Many women around the research world go to salons and spas every . day to essay on the have their hair done, make-up, or even get manicure/pedicures. Many women around the world have this done to them every day. Cosmetology has become a very popular business.

Beauty has for centuries been a major importance in societies; therefore, cosmetology as a profession will always be around for centuries. Today cosmetology has become a very popular. Barber , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 1089 Words | 3 Pages. ? Cosmetology Alternative High School Mary Ritch Cosmetologist is anyone performing manicures, hair cutting, styling, shampooing, . makeup or other cosmetology services, according to The National Accrediting Commission of Cosmetology Arts and Sciences. Cosmetology is a good career for anyone interested in working with hair or nails. Pre-dissertation Fellowship? Some cosmetologists might massage and treat the scalp.

Many people benefit by looking good. Looking good makes people feel a lot better about themselves. Gcse Mathematics Coursework? I think. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Human body 609 Words | 3 Pages. weddings, proms, and pre-dissertation research fellowship, other special events in order to routine hairstyling. Also known as a licensed cosmetologist, their education hours vary by edexcel, state. Hair . Stylists are governed by their state cosmetology board.All specialties with in cosmetology except for estheticians and nail technicians must hold a valid cosmetology license before working on the public. Linous “Spike” White my successful barber, and mentor has all the elements of becoming a “phenomanal cosmetologist,” so he says. Research? I was introduced. Barber , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 698 Words | 3 Pages.

mo I choose to do my essay on the history of cosmetology fashion design and sat essay question 2011, makeup. These are the things I wish do with my career. I am . absolutely fascinated by these topics and how far they came along in the world. All of these topics are a true form of art. As I work with clients, I like to portray them as my own personal Barbie doll. The best part of working with clients is seeing their reaction after I finish my service. It is fellowship, amazing how much their confidence grow just by changing their. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Hair 1187 Words | 4 Pages. ? Annotated Bibliography Cosmetology Licensing. (2003). New York: Learning Express, LLC.

Standards are set for cosmetologist for each . state’s board. Many states use exams sponsored by Exterior Assessments. A list of dissertation apa, specific certification requirements are for all 50 states. Most written examinations for cosmetologists contain questions in four areas: scientific and basic concepts, physical services, chemical services, hair designing. The cosmetology exam takes a lot of preparation. You need. Bobbi Brown , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 2741 Words | 7 Pages. able to start a career in cosmetology is something that I would more than enjoy doing.

It takes more than defining a career, describing it and research, . getting there to actually prove that you mastered your career. Cosmetology is sat essay 2011, important aspects of everyday lives with many specialities that helps one feel and pre-dissertation, look better. Cosmetology is a general term that encompasses several professions within the report beauty industry. Hairstyling is perhaps the most commonly known branch of cosmetology . Other careers, such as. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Hairstyle 858 Words | 3 Pages.

supervisor, or nutritionist and receptionist. Knowledge cosmetic, beauty Specific nutrition Office and Interpersonal skills 21st CENTURY WORKPLACE . COMPETENCIES Academic Achievements June, 2010: Completion of pre-dissertation research, 1000 hours in the cosmetology Program at the Joseph M. Barry Career Technical Education Center, Westbury, NY 11590, June 2010 Graduate of citing, Westbury High School, Westbury, NY. June 2010 Industry Knowledge Trainer, motivated Supervisor, responsible, organized. Association football , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 262 Words | 3 Pages. Cosmetologists provide beauty services that include caring for the cosmetic condition of research fellowship, hair, skin, and nails. The field of cosmetology . encompasses several occupations, including hairstylist and hairdresser, shampooer, barber, skincare specialist, and nail technician. Cosmetologists help people look the way they want and let them feel better about themselves.

To work in media cosmetology there are some requirements that cosmetologists are going to need. Cosmetologists have to have good vision so they can see. Barber , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 1853 Words | 7 Pages. licensed. • The requirements for a license vary depending on what state your in, but it is generally mandatory for pre-dissertation research, one to have a high school . diploma or GED. • To be at least 16 years old and have graduated from a state-licensed cosmetology school. • Before graduating, students are required to pass a state licensing examination. • It is also said that you should have an understanding of fashion, art and technical design. Since your work requires you to deal with. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Hairdressing 1886 Words | 6 Pages. not create art with hair and makeup? Stephanie tried to mathematics major in psychology, English, media, but it wasn’t until she took her tour at pre-dissertation research Paul Mitchell the . School that she knew that's where she belonged. Gcse Coursework? She felt at home, and at that point she knew cosmetology was something she was born to do!

Abeyta 3 Services Provided: Hair: •Color •Cutting •Styling •Texture (Perms amp; Relaxers) Nails: •Manicures •Pedicures •Silk Wraps •Acrylic •Nail Design (Free Hand) Spa: •Facials . Advertising , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 1845 Words | 7 Pages. products, such as cosmetics or hairbrushes. Pre-dissertation Research? Sometimes they take care of the day-to-day concerns involved in about media advantages running a small business. For example, they may . Pre-dissertation Fellowship? supervise other workers, order supplies, and keep records. Getting the Job Most schools of cosmetology help their students find jobs. Some of citing dissertation apa, these schools offer a lifetime placement service so that graduates can return and receive assistance finding work or continuing their studies. Pre-dissertation Fellowship? The reputation of a school can greatly enhance a graduate's job.

Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Cosmetics 842 Words | 3 Pages. Life as a Master Cosmetologist Anitra R. Bankston Strayer University Abstract What is and spending money essay, a master cosmetologist? A master cosmetologist is an individual . that has knowledge and research fellowship, skills in citing the field of cosmetology through advanced education. Cosmetology is defined as the art and pre-dissertation research fellowship, science of beautifying and improving skin, hair, and nails. Edexcel Mathematics Coursework? (Houghton Mifflin, 2009) In order to obtain the title master cosmetologist certain requirements must be met. A master cosmetologist may provide beauty services. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Massage 1110 Words | 4 Pages.

that needed their hair cut. Another student then walked over and cut the previously mentioned students hair for pre-dissertation research fellowship, her. In conclusion, hair school satisfies . these students that feel they don’t have an identity and edexcel gcse mathematics coursework, they join in the culture that is Cosmetology School and pre-dissertation, somehow this fills a void that they were missing in their life and they are now accepted into a culture. They all dress alike and have similar hairstyles and color. It appears to book be and pre-dissertation fellowship, effective cultural practices as these students. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Long hair 1455 Words | 4 Pages.

regulations 14 Ethical issues 15 Bibliography 16 PRODUCTION DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS C.A.S Beauty . Salon is the name of the business. It is a Beauty Salon that engages in different areas of the cosmetology service. For example Hairdressing, Nail Technician, Beauty Therapy and Pedicurist and Manicurist. C.A.S Beauty Salon is s sole proprietorship. It is own and control by Chavonese Stephens. C.A.S Beauty Salon is a salon that caters for children from. Blowdryer , Capital accumulation , Cosmetics 1037 Words | 5 Pages. Cosmetics and Fragrance Master Sop. writing to express my interest in applying for on the redemption, a Master’s Degree in the The European Fragrance and research, Cosmetic Master Programs of the citing Group ISIPCA for the year . 2011/13.

What led me to apply for fellowship, your position is edexcel mathematics, that I have been planning a career in cosmetology industry for several years. In my eyes, cosmetic and perfume products are the best combination between art and science. My long time fascination with perfume and cosmetic is reflected in my participation starting when I was a little girl. I can. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Culture 1519 Words | 4 Pages.

a man she didn’t love and still under her mother’s emotional control, Eva felt imprisoned in her marriage with her new husband. With the stress and pre-dissertation fellowship, guilt of 3rd grade book report charlotte's web, . Research? losing her first child she turned to cigarettes to calm her nerves. Eva went back to cosmetology school and report, finished her degree in 10 months. She started working in a salon where she made minimum wage. Shortly after she started working at the salon, Eva became pregnant with her second child. She still lived under her parents’ roof and chose. Childhood , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 2088 Words | 5 Pages.

Francette had to put a hold on her dream. Once the pre-dissertation fellowship both of them got their feet on the ground, she then expressed her interest in hair again. Francette and . Dissertation Apa? Romeus then worked hard to gain the funds necessary to put her through cosmetology school. She obtained both her cosmetology and business license after three years of hard work. The Next Step Not too long after Francette obtained her licenses, Romeus decided to research fellowship pursue a barber’s license. He thought it would be a great idea to saving and spending essay assist his wife in. Barber , Business , Cosmetics 1547 Words | 5 Pages. cosmetics, perfume, and fellowship, hair and skin care items. Its brands include L'Oreal Paris and charlotte's, Maybelline (mass-market), Lancome (luxury), and Redken and . SoftSheen/Carson (retail and salon).

L'Oreal, which owns Dallas-based SkinCeuticals, also conducts cosmetology and dermatology research. With more than 50% of sales generated outside Europe, L'Oreal has focused on acquiring brands in those markets. L'Oreal also owns the UK-based natural cosmetics retailer The Body Shop International, which numbers some 2. Brand , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 1579 Words | 5 Pages. out, but all year round. My first career chosen was a cosmetologist. I started thinking about this career option last year when I took my first . cosmetology class and my teacher was very impressed with my work, being a year younger than the rest of the class. Right now I am taking cosmetology and I really enjoy it, so that is why I chose cosmetology as my first career option. My next career choice was mostly a shock to me, but I chose anesthesiology because it was one of my results on the career.

Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 2087 Words | 5 Pages. How to Become a Successful Cosmetologist. and growing industry. Everyone wants to look good and pre-dissertation fellowship, spends thousands of dollars each year to saving and spending money do so. Cosmetology is an research fellowship, extremely prosperous . industry, despite the affects of the economy people will continue to spend money to get their hair done. As a stylist I have always found, styling hair to be therapeutic, to see a blank canvas turn into something beautiful is a wonderful feeling. Cosmetology is my family’s business, my ancestors has been styling hair for centuries. So being a cosmetologist was. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Customer 1290 Words | 3 Pages. • Understanding product information Qualification We do not need any degree to become a beautician as on hand training is the most important way of . 2011? learning skills. However, nowadays this profession has been standardized and you need to research fellowship register in cosmetology school to acquire professional certification for this job.

Job Evaluation “Cut Bites” always evaluate the job of essay on the shawshank redemption, beautician. We think we serve our customer very well and we are in very good position in research fellowship market. Job evaluation involves to evaluating. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Job description 713 Words | 2 Pages. Arts7 24 March 2014 The Perfect Career in Cosmetology Cosmetology is a difficult but exciting career to go into. It’s the . study of mathematics, art and science of beauty. Pre-dissertation Research? Improving the skin, hair, and nails are responsibilities.

It’s the study of cosmetics and their applications. It is money, focused on beauty and art. It is the art of pre-dissertation research, beauty. Without cosmetology everyone would not be able how to cut, shampoo, die, and take care of media, their hair, nails, and pre-dissertation research fellowship, body. Cosmetology is very important to life and to people. . Barber , Barber's pole , Cosmetics 1076 Words | 5 Pages. in close proximity. In order to ensure that customers are satisfied, there are certain measures that will be in place.

The owner will . Sat Essay November? ensure that she employs persons who are highly qualified and experienced in pre-dissertation all aspects of cosmetology . Saving Money? She will also ensure that workers have their business license and health card according to research government regulations. All equipments will be sterilized on a daily basis and in good working conditions at all times. The products obtained will be from. Beauty salon , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 1605 Words | 5 Pages. retail counter and make most of their money on product sales commissions. In addition, they might require some education to question november 2011 work as a makeup artist. To work . in a makeup artist’s job, a person will only need a high school diploma; experience in cosmetology or in theater work; a good eye for detail; and good artistic skills. Training and educational requirements for makeup artists vary. Pre-dissertation? There are also schools that specialize in film, television and theatrical makeup. Makeup artists can also learn and. Art , Artist , Cosmetics 1233 Words | 3 Pages.

I always loved to book report charlotte's play in someone hair and to style it was always fun and interesting to me. Fellowship? Doing hair was something I always enjoyed. So I chose to do . my project on cosmetology ; since I was a little girl doing hair has always been my dream and my passion for it for is strong. Dissertation? I started doing hair when I was 11 years old. I was in 5th grade and research fellowship, my mom let start putting pony tails in edexcel mathematics me and my sister hair. Pre-dissertation Fellowship? She notices that I wasn’t breaking their hair off their hair and that I was doing a good. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Hair 1325 Words | 4 Pages.

application and essay, selection of cosmetic products, which can lead to research work in the film and theater industry, or provide freelance work for weddings, . About Advantages And Disadvantages? photographers and more. The many choices in pre-dissertation research esthetician careers closely resemble the paths available in cosmetology , and citing dissertation, an individual seeking esthetician training should examine both career paths closely to research decide which is about mass media and disadvantages, right for pre-dissertation fellowship, his or her needs. It is my life-long goal to become an Esthetician. November 2011? Since very early in my life, I have been attracted to the beauty. Career , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 977 Words | 3 Pages. amazing and feel appealing enroll in cosmetology schools. Cosmetology school is a place for creative, sociable, ambitious and research, . constantly developing individuals. There are a lot of various directions in the program of a cosmetology school, so every person is free either to choose the subject he or she likes, or to take up several of them: nail technician, esthetician, hair styling, permanent make up specialist, massage therapist, etc.

The sphere of cosmetology is multisided and very perspective and. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Massage 896 Words | 2 Pages. you client unattended while electrical equipment is 3rd grade book report, being used on pre-dissertation research fellowship, them. * Always hold onto the plug not the sat essay cord when taking a plug out of an outlet * . Never use electrical equipment around water. Alyssa Doppke 8/19/12 Classroom 1 Session 2 Cosmetology is the study and application of beauty treatment. Branches of specialty including hairstyling, skin care, cosmetics, manicures/pedicures, and electrology. Anyone that is in fellowship the beauty industry uses electricity. Electricity is the science, engineering.

Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Hair 575 Words | 2 Pages. enjoy that pays less than a job I dislike and pays well. The careers that I chose are Cosmetology and Photography. I choose . Cosmetology as a career I would like to essay about media advantages pursue for many reasons, one of them being because cosmetology takes a lot of work not just with your hands but also your mind because for cosmetology you have to be very creative. To be a cosmetologist you have to be really artistic and creative. Pre-dissertation Research? Cosmetology takes more than just listening to your client and what they have to say you have. College , Cosmetology , High school 717 Words | 2 Pages. What is the Difference Between a Cosmetologist and an Esthetician?

What is the Difference Between a Cosmetologist and an Esthetician? Although a cosmetologist (with the edexcel gcse coursework right training) is sometimes also an esthetician, an research fellowship, . esthetician is not usually a cosmetologist. That's because cosmetology incorporates general care for hair, skin, and nails whereas esthetics, as a career, is solely about specialized skin care. Licensed estheticians, in essay mass media advantages general, have received more advanced training than cosmetologists in various facial beauty treatments, makeup application. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Massage 2221 Words | 8 Pages.

My career interest is cosmetology . I have always wanted to own my own beauty salon and become a cosmetologist. I am interested in . cosmetology because I love to do hair and being an African American, I need to have my hair done to look nice and presentable. As a child, I always wanted to do others and pre-dissertation fellowship, my own hair. My mother had a license in cosmetology for fourteen years and edexcel gcse mathematics coursework, I always wanted to be just like her. My strengths are that I can do wraps, straighten and curl hair, relax and research fellowship, perm hair, shampoo. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Personal care and service occupations 540 Words | 2 Pages. shampoo and conditioner called fast; it is a product that makes your hair grow faster. Citing Dissertation Apa? I was always interested in the field of cosmetology I . Pre-dissertation Research Fellowship? am still a little indecisive on what I want to be, a cosmetology teacher or a hair dresser.

If I had to pick what I want to become now it would be a cosmetology teacher, but you have to be a hairdresser before you are a cosmetology teacher, they both have to edexcel gcse coursework deal with hair and makeup and some cases nails. Research? The interview did help me understand more about the. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Learning 597 Words | 2 Pages. Esthetician Opportunities and Future. History and Opportunities chapter 1 16152_01_Ch01_001-011.qxd 7/31/06 12:47 PM Page 3 CHAPTER OUTLINE Brief History of . Essay On The Shawshank Redemption? Cosmetology Career Paths for a Nail Technician A Bright Future LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Describe the origins of appearance enhancement. Pre-dissertation Research? 2. Media And Disadvantages? Describe the advancements made in cosmetology during the 19th, 20th, and pre-dissertation, early 21st centuries. Edexcel Mathematics? 3. List the career opportunities available to a licensed nail technician. 16152_01_Ch01_001-011. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Hair coloring 3084 Words | 11 Pages. decided to return to school, get my degree in communication and start a career that I enjoy. I was most motivated to fellowship finish school, because I made a promise . to my mother before she passed with liver cancer in 3rd grade book web 2003.

At that time, I was going to cosmetology school and fellowship, had two little girls. I remember her looking weak and frail in her hospital bed. I could see how tired and almost sedated she was, but still she worried about how my future was going to turn out. She looked at edexcel mathematics coursework me with tears running from. Cancer , College , Cosmetics 641 Words | 2 Pages. Summarise the key aspects of research, current legislative requirements and codes of practice relevant to your subject and the type of organisation within which you would like to work. legal requirement, this code may be used in criminal proceedings as evidence of improper practice’ (Nordmann P.120) while it is not the law to follow these . rules to become a member of an sat essay, awarding body like British Association of Beauty Therapy And Cosmetology (BABTAC) you must follow their guide lines.

Being a member of an awarding body shows competence and high standards. Research? As the head therapist it is my responsibility to saving ensure the code of pre-dissertation research, conduct is followed. Two laws the on the shawshank code includes are not to disclose. Acts of the Apostles , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 600 Words | 2 Pages. cosmetics’ market • Blossoming (rapid development) of cosmetics for men As it was said before, the pre-dissertation market of essay, cosmetics, at the beginning, interested . just a few brands and also, few men.

Initially, this world is attributed to women only. Research? In fact, cosmetology is synonymous of seduction, beauty, healthiness, or pleasure. Those words represent what the women are looking for when it comes to cosmetics. About Media Advantages? But, finally, the market of men cosmetics takes off after years of waiting thanks to different changes. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , L'Oreal 2723 Words | 8 Pages. you think? I think generally we sometimes don’t appreciate the kind of love and support we get from family members. Roman looked up to her father as an . inspirational and research, wanted her children to look up to her as the same. Roman finally concluded cosmetology school, she felt in saving and spending essay her heart that she would be successful in her own business. “so that`s something I was proud of because I did it, Thanks to research my father and mother, of course, because they helped so much” (816).She got what she wanted, she was. American films , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 812 Words | 3 Pages. not as colorful as makeup.

If I were to essay on the shawshank redemption become a makeup artist I would be dealing with cosmetics, which is not as messy as food. Going in to Culinary . School and becoming a chef has its benefits and pre-dissertation research fellowship, its complications. Even though culinary and cosmetology are both a form of art the culinary world has a lot to do with food and messes in essay on the redemption the kitchen. This art is pre-dissertation fellowship, shown when you decorate a dish with a simple flower or taste in food. When becoming a professional chef I would have to deal with recipes. College , Cooking , Cosmetics 744 Words | 2 Pages. from now?

I could be six feet underground, I could be a cosmetologist, I could be a homeless person living outside of Wal-Mart for goodness sakes! You never . know until you get there. Hopefuly I will be a cosmetologist, that's what I'm planning on. Cosmetology runs in my family pretty much, my grandmother can cut hair like a pro, my mother can do hair and makeup like she's gone to school for it for years and years, and myself, a 14 year old girl, can do all of gcse coursework, these things, I cut my own hair, I even cut. Cosmetics , Cosmetology 815 Words | 2 Pages. High School and Tina- Silence Yeah. Tina- Really?? No I didn’t know. Counselor- So how do you think you will get in if you don’t finish seventh grade. Research? Tina- I guess I do need to finish . seventh grade.

Counselor- Alright, how about we look for a good technical school that offers cosmetology so you can work on citing, becoming a hair dresser? Does that sound like a good idea? Tina- Yeah that sounds good, I like that idea. Counselor First we need to get through the end of 7th grade and move on to 8th. Pre-dissertation? Tina- I can do that, but getting. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Educational years 607 Words | 2 Pages. Success Factors of Selected Beauty Salon Business Along Layunan Binangonan, Rizal. business.

It sells itself. However, because there are so many stylists, hair dressers and beauticians in business now, competition is fierce. First, make . sure you are trained in all necessary skills needed to run a successful salon and that your cosmetology license is 3rd grade book, current. There are various factors that define the success of a hair salon. The most significant and key factor is high level of pre-dissertation fellowship, customer satisfaction. In case of a salon there is no better marketing tool than word-of-mouth.

Beauty salon , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 16426 Words | 52 Pages. lots of practice. I also think it's beautiful the way you can make your body both graceful and limber at redemption one time; which is why I see yoga as an research fellowship, art. I . Edexcel Gcse Mathematics Coursework? believe by me taking multiple visual art classes I am even more ecstatic to be going into pre-dissertation cosmetology school. I love that makeup, hair and fashion in general is always changing. I love that there's always something new to essay learn, and research, new ways to do things.

I love that you must practice and that your work is actually being showcased by people who. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Creative writing 768 Words | 2 Pages. content has undergone several changes over the past 10 years. The beauty industry has continued to grow nationally through the economic downturn, with an 18 . percent increase in 3rd grade book charlotte's web the number of salons nationwide over the past three years. Pre-dissertation? “The cosmetology industry never dies down, even in a recession,” says Michelle Woodard, admissions coordinator for sat essay november, Douglas J Aveda Institute in Grand Rapids. Pre-dissertation Research? “Everyone will always want to look beautiful.” At the outset of this period there was little demand. Change , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 2146 Words | 8 Pages. bank accepts to saving money essay debit their accounts. This will not lose money as much as the credit facilities which are only built and dependent on the customer to come . and honor their bills. 2.7 INDUSTRY 10 years younger Hair and Beauty salon falls under cosmetology industry and pre-dissertation fellowship, is where it will operate. It is a growing industry compared to other industries and has bigger share in the market.

The salon will adopt modern technology and citing dissertation apa, will employ few employees whose number will increase as the pre-dissertation fellowship business expands. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Hair 8673 Words | 36 Pages. Cosmetology: Massage and about and disadvantages, Nail Technician. ?Erika Suprunchik Mr. Pre-dissertation Research? Justen English IV 24 May 2012 The Beauty Within You Cosmetology is the professional skill and practice of . beautifying the hair, face, skin and body. Gcse? Cosmetologists bring out the beauty within each person by working on the human body. (Allure) The process is not easy, it involves many practice, talent, and patients.

Each category has its own steps and pre-dissertation, techniques. Cosmetology is edexcel, not only to beautify but also to heal the human body. They are like doctors without the doctor’s. Acupressure , Cosmetics , Hairdressing 2371 Words | 7 Pages. How to Do a Manicure 1. Research Fellowship? Find a work space. Consider: * Protection. Nail polish and remover can damage many surfaces such as cloth, wood finish and . plastic. So, wear an expendable t-shirt and no valuable accessories, sit at citing dissertation apa a desk or table, protect it with scrap paper (not newsprint, which smudges), and make sure the table itself and anything near it is pre-dissertation research fellowship, not particularly valuable or important to keep perfect because there might be a spatter or spill soaking through. You might not want to work.

Acetone , Finger , Manicure 1800 Words | 5 Pages. ?Dorothea Dix Dorothea Dix brought the november introduction of mental asylums and hospitals for the mentally sick. She encouraged the poor and sick people to pre-dissertation research get . better as soon as they can. Since Dorothea Dix has taken this opportunity to help, it has changed the lives of many mentally ill children and adults. Dorothea Lynde Dix was born on April 4, 1802, in Hampden, Maine. She was the sat essay question november eldest of three children, and her father, Joseph Dix, was a religious fanatic and pre-dissertation research, distributor of religious tracts who.

Dorothea Dix , History of mental health , History of psychiatric institutions 1142 Words | 5 Pages. Why Cosmetology ? To begin, my name is Michelle Fenstermacher and I am in Cosmetology . Which is edexcel gcse mathematics, a large and fellowship, creative field that . I chose to become a part of at ICTC. I chose to question 2011 attend ICTC due to myself liking to help others and pre-dissertation, make people look and feel their personal best. I can help people look and feel beautiful by doing their hair, nails, and give them a cuter style. If you want me to make you look the dissertation apa hottest you have ever been before, then come and let me do your hair, nails or give you a. Barbie , Bathtub , Cosmetics 685 Words | 2 Pages. Cosmetology: Summer Olympic Games and Gold Medal. Cosmetology (from Greek ??????????, kosmetikos, beautifying;[1] and -?????, -logia) is the study and application of pre-dissertation research fellowship, beauty treatment. Gcse Coursework? . Fellowship? Branches of specialty including hairstyling, skin care, cosmetics, manicures/pedicures, and dissertation apa, electrology. Hair stylist A hair stylist is pre-dissertation research fellowship, someone who cuts and styles hair.

He or she can also offer other services such as coloring, extensions and straightening. A good hairstylist has a sense of fashion and the ability to know what style will look the best on a client. 1968 Summer Olympics , 2000 Summer Olympics , 2008 Summer Olympics 2469 Words | 7 Pages. History of Cosmetology Nail Care Cosmetology is the study and essay, application of beauty treatment. Branches of research, specialty . including hairstyling, skin care, cosmetics, manicures/pedicures, and electrology. Nail Technology is the art and science of beautifying and essay on the redemption, improving the nails and skin of the hands and feet. The history of nail care reveals some intriguing facts. It was a part of aristocracy and pre-dissertation research, a symbol of status in ancient times. And Spending Money? It was in the nineteenth century that nail care started to become. Ancient Egypt , Empress Dowager Cixi , Manicure 761 Words | 2 Pages.

When starting a career in cosmetology , it is imperative to pre-dissertation research develop a strong code of work ethics. Having a strong work ethic shows that a . person is self motivated, conducts themselves in a professional manner, and is able to sat essay self evaluate. It is necessary to possess these qualities because they will determine how successful one can become in this industry. Fellowship? The first important fundamental of a strong work ethic is self motivation. Self motivation is the ability to satisfy a desire, expectation. Educational psychology , Ethics , Learning 419 Words | 2 Pages. A. Introduction to Cosmetology * Cosmetology refers to apa the study and practice of beauty culture. It is the professional . treatment of the skin, hair, and nails. Success in pre-dissertation research beauty culture depends to a large extent upon shawshank knowing the “why” and “how of the varied services rendered to patrons Cosmetics 1. Foundation: provide the backdrop for the entire colorful facial make up artistry. Pre-dissertation Research Fellowship? The sole purpose is to 3rd grade report web give the face one even color tone.

Types * Liquid: most popular type, easily applied. Color , Cosmetics , Eye 3488 Words | 11 Pages. Business Plan for Cosmetology Class. COMPANY DESCRIPTION Pure Serenity Day Spa is a new upscale destination in Fairbanks, AK, offering a complete day spa experience. We offer ultra-chic, . Pre-dissertation Research Fellowship? ultra-comfortable treatment rooms with the finest spa linens and 3rd grade report web, equipment. We offer massage in a variety of styles - traditional Swedish massage, Deep Tissue work, Hot Stone Massage, Pregnancy and Aromatherapy. Research Fellowship? We also offer facial and waxing services and body treatments. The day spa has the latest in anti-aging products and techniques but does NOT.

Destination spa , Massage , Serenity 1141 Words | 4 Pages.